Revista de Nutrição
On-line version ISSN 1678-9865
SANTOS, Cláudia Roberta Bocca; PORTELLA, Emilson Souza; AVILA, Sonia Silva and SOARES, Eliane de Abreu. Dietary factors in preventing and treating comorbidities associated with the metabolic syndrome. Rev. Nutr. [online]. 2006, vol.19, n.3, pp.389-401. ISSN 1678-9865. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-52732006000300010.
The metabolic syndrome constitutes a cardiovascular risk factor characterized by the association of high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, high plasma triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol concentration, beyond the observed prothrombotic and proinflammatory states. Otherwise, an adequate diet associated with other lifestyle modifications, such as regular physical activity and curb smoking contribute to an improved control of the disease, preventing its complications and increasing the quality of life. In this way, the proposal of this study was to review, in the scientific literature, the role of the diet in preventing and treating the metabolic syndrome. The articles on this matter inform that the nutritional therapy aims to limit the consumption of saturated fats and trans isomeric fatty acids, the main components involved in increasing cholesterolemia. The quantity of protein must be similar to the recommendations for the general population, with emphasis on plant and fish protein. Another important issue is the glycemic index of foods: diets with high glycemic index promote insulin resistance, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In relation to dietary fibers, many studies show that a diet rich in fibers reduces the risk of coronary diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and also contributes to improve glycemic control. Therefore, an adequate diet not only constitutes an indispensable factor in the treatment but also in the prevention of the metabolic syndrome.
Keywords : diabetes mellitus; diet; cardiovascular diseases; nutrition; metabolic syndrome.