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Revista de Nutrição
Print version ISSN 1415-5273
DISHCHEKENIAN, Vera Regina Mello et al. Dietary patterns of obese adolescents and different metabolic effects. Rev. Nutr. [online]. 2011, vol.24, n.1, pp. 17-29. ISSN 1415-5273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-52732011000100002.
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the association between dietary patterns and metabolic changes in obese adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 76 students (both genders, 14-19 years old, BMI³P95 and Tanner stage ³4) enrolled in public schools from 2006 to 2007 in São Paulo city, Brazil. A sociodemographic questionnaire and 4-day food record were administered and anthropometric and biochemical data were collected. Scores for dietary patterns were assessed by factor analysis and after potential confounders were controlled, multilinear regression was used to associate the three identified patterns with biological risk factors. RESULTS: The Traditional Pattern (rice and cereals, beans, red meat, sausage, oils and sweets) was positively associated with insulin, blood glucose and triglycerides and negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein. The In-Transition pattern (fish, poultry, eggs, bread, butter, milk and dairy products, vegetables, fruits, fruit juice and white sugar), presented the same positive associations in addition to an association with diastolic blood pressure. The Fast Food pattern (high fat bakery products, hamburger, mayonnaise, cookies and crackers, chocolate and sodas) presented a positive association with cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a negative association with insulin and high-density lipoprotein. CONCLUSION: The Traditional and In-Transition patterns were differently related to glucose and lipid metabolism when compared with the fast food pattern. The three patterns could be considered obesogenic, however the Fast Food pattern seems to be the most atherogenic and promoter of hypertension.
Keywords : Adolescent; Feeding behavior; Food consumption; Cardiovascular diseases; Risk factor; Obesity.