Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia
Print version ISSN 1415-790X
TOBON C., Alberto et al. The epidemiology of complicated falciparum malaria: case and controls study in Tumaco and Turbo, Colombia, 2003. Rev. bras. epidemiol. [online]. 2006, vol.9, n.3, pp. 283-296. ISSN 1415-790X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2006000300003.
OBJECTIVES: Aimed at identifying host and parasite aspects associated to the presence of Plasmodium falciparum complicated malaria. METHODS: Case and controls study in patients from Tumaco and Turbo (Colombia). We used the World Health Organization criteria to assess the presence of complicated malaria. RESULTS: A total 64 cases and 135 controls were included between November 2002 and July 2003. Observed complications were hyperparasitaemia (40%), liver failure (36%), adult respiratory distress syndrome (7%), renal failure (4%), severe thrombocytopenia (3%), severe anemia (2%), cerebral malaria (2%) and severe hypoglicemia (1%). Were identified as risk factors: a) falciparum malaria history in the previous year was lower in the cases (OR= 7.0 (1.2-43.6) P=0.019), b) the high use by the cases of antimalarials (OR=2.2, (1.1-4.4) P=0.031) and c) the high use of chloroquine by the cases (OR=7.4 (1.1-7.8), P=0.017) before attending to the hospital. Presence of P. falciparum alleles MAD-20 and K1 (msp1 gene), FC-27 and IC-1 (msp2 gene) was confirmed. No significant differences were observed in the presence of these alleles; however K1 was more frequent in cases (9.4%) than in controls (3.5%). The frequency of danger signs during the disease was significantly greater in the cases (OR= 3.3 (1.5-7.4) P=0.001). The World Health Organization criteria for complicated malaria are compared with others and some implications are discussed. CONCLUSION: They were identified as risk factors for complicated falciparum malaria, the absence of falciparum malaria antecedents in the last year and the use of antimalarials before attending to the hospital.
Keywords : Complicated malaria; Severe malaria [falciparum]; Case and controls; Colombia.