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Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia

Print version ISSN 1415-790XOn-line version ISSN 1980-5497

Abstract

CUNHA, Jane Cris de Lima; LIMA, José Wellington de Oliveira  and  POMPEU, Margarida Maria de Lima. Domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the association between human and canine leishmaniasis, during an epidemic in Serra de Baturité, State of Ceará, Brazil. Rev. bras. epidemiol. [online]. 2006, vol.9, n.4, pp.425-435. ISSN 1415-790X.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2006000400003.

There is evidence of domestic transmission and infected dogs associated with human cases in some endemic areas for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL), associated with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. This paper presents the results of a study conducted in Serra de Baturité, State of Ceará, Brazil, aimed to gather evidence on the domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniais and the association between human and canine infection. Human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were defined as those with > 5 mm diameter round ulcers and raised borders, lasting at least 15 days and displaying a positive Montenegro skin test. Seropositive dogs were those with a positive indirect immunofluorescence assay. Age was classified into two strata, 1 to 10, and 11 to 89 years. The incidence of ACL was associated neither with gender (Incidence Rate (IR) = 1.21; 95% CI: 0.86-1.72), nor with age (IR=1.38; 95% CI: 0.97-1.96). The incidence of human ACL was 45% higher for those individuals living with seropositive dogs, (IR=1.45; 95% CI: 1.02-2.06), after adjustment for gender, and 48% higher (RI=1.45; 95% CI: 1.02-2.06), adjusting for age. Regarding the domestic risk, the incidence of human ACL was two-fold higher (IR=2.01; 95% CI: 1.32-3.06) in those households with one or more seropositive dogs. Humans were infected with L. (V) braziliensis regardless of gender and age, and infected dogs were associated with human ACL. Therefore, these results support the hypothesis of domestic/peridomestic transmission of L. (V) braziliensis.

Keywords : Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; Domestic transmission.

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