Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia
Print version ISSN 1415-790X
FARIAS JUNIOR, José Cazuza de; MENDES, Jonathan Karl Feitosa; BARBOSA, Daniele Batista Martins and LOPES, Adair da Silva. Cardiovascular risk factors for adolescents: prevalence and association with sociodemographic factors. Rev. bras. epidemiol. [online]. 2011, vol.14, n.1, pp. 50-62. ISSN 1415-790X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2011000100005.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (individual and co-occurrence); and to analyze their relationship with demographic and socioeconomic variables in adolescents. METHODS: A two-stage cluster sampling process was used (school and class). The sample was made up of 782 adolescents (14 to 17 years old, 54.9% female), from high schools in the city of João Pessoa - PB, Brazil. Independent variables were: sex, age, and socioeconomic status. Outcomes were cardiovascular risk factors (insufficient levels of physical activity, poor dietary habits, high blood pressure, alcoholism, overweight, and smoking). RESULTS: Insufficient levels of physical activity (59.5%) and poor dietary habits (49.5%) were the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. High blood pressure, alcoholism, and overweight were higher among males than females, and insufficient levels of physical activity were more prevalent among females. Around 10% of these adolescents did not exhibit risk factors, while 51.4% had two or more cardiovascular risk factors. The odds of co-occurrence of biological risk factors were 1.89 (1.35 - 2.65) times greater for male adolescents and 1.69 (95% CI= 1.16 - 2.47) greater for those in the lowest socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, with a predominance of co-occurrence of exposure to more than one risk factor. Male and underprivileged adolescents were more likely to suffer co-occurrence of exposure to biological risk factors.
Keywords : Adolescents; Cardiovascular risk factors; Socioeconomic factors; Prevalence; Overweight; Physical activity.