Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia
Print version ISSN 1415-790X
MALTA, Deborah Carvalho; MOURA, Erly Catarina and MORAIS NETO, Otaliba Libanio de. Gender and schooling inequalities in risk and protective factors for chronic diseases among Brazilian adults, through telephone survey. Rev. bras. epidemiol. [online]. 2011, vol.14, suppl.1, pp. 125-135. ISSN 1415-790X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2011000500013.
OBJECTIVES: To assess risk and protective factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCD) and to identify social inequalities in their distribution among Brazilian adults. METHODS: The data used were collected in 2007 through VIGITEL, an ongoing population-based telephone survey. This surveillance system was implemented in all of the Brazilian State capitals, over 54,000 interviews were analyzed. Age-adjusted prevalence ratios for trends at different schooling levels were calculated using Poisson regression with linear models. RESULTS: These analyses have shown differences in the prevalence of risk and protective factors for CNCD by gender and schooling. Among men, the prevalence ratios of overweight, consumption of meat with visible fat, and dyslipidemia were higher among men with more schooling, while tobacco use, sedentary lifestyle, and high-blood pressure were lower. Among women, tobacco use, overweight, obesity, high-blood pressure and diabetes were lower among men with more schooling, and consumption of meat with visible fat and sedentary lifestyles were higher. As for protective factors, fruit and vegetables intake and physical activity were higher in both men and women with more schooling. CONCLUSION: Gender and schooling influence on risk and protective factors for CNCD, being the values less favorable for men. vigitel is a useful tool for monitoring these factors amongst the Brazilian population.
Keywords : chronic disease; risk factors; inequalities; educational status; tobacco; physical activity.