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Sao Paulo Medical Journal
Print version ISSN 1516-3180On-line version ISSN 1806-9460
MURTA, Eddie Fernando Candido; SOUZA, Maria Azniv Hazarabedian de; ARAUJO JUNIOR, Eduardo and ADAD, Sheila Jorge. Incidence of Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp and human papilloma virus in cytological smears. Sao Paulo Med. J. [online]. 2000, vol.118, n.4, pp.105-108. ISSN 1516-3180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-31802000000400006.
CONTEXT: In spite of the wide-ranging literature on the microbiology of normal and abnormal flora of the vagina, there are few studies on the relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and other vaginal microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of infection by human papilloma virus (HPV) and other agents like Candida sp., Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis in cytological smears. DESIGN STUDY: Retrospective study SETTING: A public tertiary referral center. SAMPLE: An analysis of 17,391 cytologies from outpatients seen between January 1997 and August 1998. The control group was made up of patients in the same age group and same period with no cytological evidence of HPV infection. Patients with a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II or III were excluded from this analysis. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The diagnosis of HPV infection was made in accordance with the criteria of Schneider et al. and the diagnosis of Gardnerella vaginalis was made with a finding of clue cells. RESULTS: 390 (2.24%) had alterations consistent with infection by HPV, sometimes associated with CIN I. The results showed that Gardnerella vaginalis was the most frequent agent in women with HPV infection (23.6% versus 17.4%; P <0.05), while in the control group the most frequent agent was Candida sp. (23.9% versus 13.8%; p <0.001). CONCLUSION: In spite of this study being based solely on cytological criteria, in which specific HPV and Gardnerella diagnostic tests were not used, the cytological smear is widely used in clinical practice and the data presented in this investigation show that there is an association between Gardnerella vaginalis and HPV infection. It remains to be established whether the microorganisms favor each other.
Keywords : Human papilloma virus; Gardnerella vaginalis; Candida sp; Cytological smear.