Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
Print version ISSN 1516-8484
CHAUFFAILLE, Maria de Lourdes L. F.. Chromosomal abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndrome. Rev. Bras. Hematol. Hemoter. [online]. 2006, vol.28, n.3, pp. 182-187. ISSN 1516-8484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-84842006000300006.
The study of chromosomal abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is important for diagnosis, prognosis, classification, follow-up, therapeutic option and for a better understanding of the biology of the disease. Chromosomal aberrations are observed in 30% to 50% of MDS cases at diagnosis, and from 80% to 90% of secondary MDS. Chromosomes 5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 17, 20, 21 and X are the most frequently involved. Chromosomal aberrations have an independent prognosis value and relate with clinical course and transformation. As good prognosis abnormalities figure: normal karyotype, nulisomy Y, isolated del(5q), del(12p), del(11q) and del(20q); as intermediate prognosis are: trisomy 8, 3q21q26 rearrangements, translocations 11q, del(17p), trisomy 18 and trisomy 19; and as unfavorable prognosis: complex karyotype, monosomy 7, del(7q) and i(17q). Referring to classification, the World Health Organization established karyotype analysis as mandatory for MDS diagnosis and defined 5q- Syndrome as a specific entity. In respect to follow-up, abnormalities can be detected subsequently delineating aggressiveness or transformation of the disease. Nowadays some therapeutic options are underlined by chromosomal abnormalities. It is not known if the chromosomal aberrations detected in MDS are initial events that lead to the development of the disease (cause) or are secondary phenomena (consequences). Anyway, they point out that at molecular level there is a series of aspects not well understood yet.
Keywords : Chromosome; myelodysplasic syndrome; karyotype; prognosis.