Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
On-line version ISSN 1806-0870
MEDEIROS, Carlos R. de et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for severe aplastic anemia patients with risk factors for poor prognosis: is fludarabine a requirement?. Rev. Bras. Hematol. Hemoter. [online]. 2008, vol.30, n.4, pp. 292-296. ISSN 1806-0870. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-84842008000400012.
Hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors cures 70-90% of Severe Aplastic Anemia (sAA) patients. Older age, heavy exposure to transfusions, immunosuppression treatment (IST) with a long interval from diagnosis to transplant and infection at procedure are associated with poor outcomes. We transplanted 18 patients with sAA and at least one risk factor (RF) for poor prognosis (age >35 years, >50 transfusions prior to transplant, unresponsiveness to previous IST and bacterial or fungal infection at transplant) from 2001 to 2005, using cyclophosphamide (CY - 5 patients) or busulfan plus CY (13 patients). Sixteen patients engrafted, two died with no engraftment, three patients had evidence of graft failure at days +67, +524 and +638 (two died and one was rescued with IST). Grade III/IV mucositis occurred in 39% but neither aGVHD nor cGVHD were observed. The Kaplan-Meier probability of survival was 75% at 2.14 years, with a trend favoring survival by number of RF (1 versus =2 RF) (P = 0.06). These results are comparable to recent data reported with fludarabine-based conditioning in patients with poor prognosis sAA. Due to the small sample size, prospective clinical trials with larger cohorts of patients are needed to confirm the real benefits of fludarabine-based conditioning, and also to define the best agent(s) to be associated with Fludarabine as preparative regimen for sAA patients with poor prognosis.
Keywords : Severe aplastic anemia; fludarabine-based conditioning; poor prognosis sAA; graft failure.