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Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia

Print version ISSN 1516-8484


BUENO, Nadjanara Dorna et al. Busulfan and melphalan as conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission. Rev. Bras. Hematol. Hemoter. [online]. 2011, vol.33, n.3, pp.179-184. ISSN 1516-8484.

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with HLA-identical donors has been established for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia patients for over 30 years with a cure rate of 50% to 60%. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the overall survival of patients and identify factors that influence the outcomes of this type of transplant in patients in 1st complete remission who received a busulfan and melphalan combination as conditioning regimen. METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive patients with acute myeloid leukemia were enrolled between 2003 and 2008. The median age was 34 years old (Range: 16 - 57 years). All patients received cyclosporine and methotrexate for prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Median neutrophil engraftment time was 16 days (Range: 7 - 22 days) and 17 days (Range: 7 - 46 days) for platelets. Sinusoidal obstructive syndrome was observed in three patients, seven had grade II acute graft-versus-host disease and one extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. RESULTS: The overall survival by the Kaplan-Meier method was 48% after 36 months with a plateau at 36 months after transplantation. Intensive consolidation with high-dose arabinoside resulted in an improved survival (p-value = 0.0001), as did grade II acute graft-versus-host disease (p-value = 0.0377) and mild chronic graft-versus-host disease (p-value < 0.0001). Thirteen patients died, five due to infection within 100 days of transplant, two due to hemorrhages, one to infection and graftversus-host disease and three relapses followed by renal failure (one) and infection (two). The cause of death could not be determined for two patients. CONCLUSION: The busulfan and melphalan conditioning regimen is as good as other conditioning regimens providing an excellent survival rate.

Keywords : Stem cell transplantation; Leukemia, myeloid, acute; Drug toxicity; Bone marrow transplantation; Busulfan [administration & dosage]; Combined modality therapy; Cyclophosphamide [administration & dosage]; Graft vs. Host disease; Survival analysis; Prognosis.

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