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Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology
On-line version ISSN 1678-4324
VANDENBERGHE, Luciana P. S; SOCCOL, Carlos R; PANDEY, Ashok and LEBEAULT, Jean-Michel. Microbial production of citric acid. Braz. arch. biol. technol. [online]. 1999, vol.42, n.3, pp.263-276. ISSN 1678-4324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89131999000300001.
Citric acid is the most important organic acid produced in tonnage and is extensively used in food and pharmaceutical industries. It is produced mainly by submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger or Candida sp. from different sources of carbohydrates, such as molasses and starch based media. However, other fermentation techniques, e.g. solid state fermentation and surface fermentation, and alternative sources of carbon such as agro-industrial residues have been intensively studied showing great perspective to its production. This paper reviews recent developments on citric acid production by presenting a brief summary of the subject, describing micro-organisms, production techniques, and substrates, etc.
Keywords : Citric acid; Aspergillus niger; submerged fermentation; solid state fermentation; substrates.