SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.42 issue3Detection of S1-P1 and S3-P3 interactions between papain and four synthetic substrates author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links


Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology

Print version ISSN 1516-8913


VANDENBERGHE, Luciana P. S; SOCCOL, Carlos R; PANDEY, Ashok  and  LEBEAULT, Jean-Michel. Microbial production of citric acid. Braz. arch. biol. technol. [online]. 1999, vol.42, n.3, pp.263-276. ISSN 1516-8913.

Citric acid is the most important organic acid produced in tonnage and is extensively used in food and pharmaceutical industries. It is produced mainly by submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger or Candida sp. from different sources of carbohydrates, such as molasses and starch based media. However, other fermentation techniques, e.g. solid state fermentation and surface fermentation, and alternative sources of carbon such as agro-industrial residues have been intensively studied showing great perspective to its production. This paper reviews recent developments on citric acid production by presenting a brief summary of the subject, describing micro-organisms, production techniques, and substrates, etc.

Keywords : Citric acid; Aspergillus niger; submerged fermentation; solid state fermentation; substrates.

        · abstract in Portuguese     · text in English     · English ( pdf )


Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License