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Brazilian Journal of Microbiology
On-line version ISSN 1678-4405
POSSIEDE, Y.M. et al. Fungicide resistance and genetic variability in plant pathogenic strains of Guignardia citricarpa. Braz. J. Microbiol. [online]. 2009, vol.40, n.2, pp. 308-313. ISSN 1678-4405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822009000200018.
Citrus black spot (CBS) is a plant disease of worldwide occurrence, affecting crops in Africa, Oceania, and South America. In Brazil, climate provides favorable conditions and CBS has spread to the Southeast and South regions. CBS is caused by the fungus Guignardia citricarpa (anamorph: Phyllosticta citricarpa) and its control is based on the use of fungicides, such as benzimidazoles. In South Africa, the disease was kept under control for 10 years with benomyl, until cases of resistance to high concentrations of this fungicide were reported from all citrus-producing areas. Azoxystrobin (a strobilurin) has been found effective in controlling phytopathogens, including CBS, in a wide range of economically important crops. The present study investigated in vitro the effects of the fungicides benomyl and azoxystrobin on 10 strains of G. citricarpa isolated from lesions in citrus plants from Brazil and South Africa. Benomyl at 0.5 µg/mL inhibited mycelial growth in all strains except PC3C, of African origin, which exhibited resistance to concentrations of up to 100.0 µg/mL. The spontaneous mutation frequency for resistance to benomyl was 1.25 ´ 10-7. Azoxystrobin, even at high concentrations, did not inhibit mycelial growth in any of the strains, but significantly reduced sporulation rates, by as much as 100%, at a concentration of 5.0 µg/mL. Variations in sensitivity across strains, particularly to the strobilurin azoxystrobin, are possibly related to genetic variability in G. citricarpa isolates.
Keywords : G. citricarpa; Azoxystrobin; Benomyl; Citrus black spot; Fungicides.