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Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

Print version ISSN 1517-8382

Abstract

MAX, Belén et al. Biotechnological production of citric acid. Braz. J. Microbiol. [online]. 2010, vol.41, n.4, pp.862-875. ISSN 1517-8382.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822010000400005.

This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.

Keywords : citric acid; fermentation; review; Aspergillus niger.

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