Brazilian Journal of Microbiology
Print version ISSN 1517-8382
GAJERA, H. P. and VAKHARIA, D. N. Production of lytic enzymes by Trichoderma isolates during in vitro antagonism with Aspergillus niger, the causal agent of collar rot of peanut. Braz. J. Microbiol. [online]. 2012, vol.43, n.1, pp. 43-52. ISSN 1517-8382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822012000100005.
Twelve isolates of Trichoderma (six of T. harzianum, five of T. viride, one of T. virens), which reduced variably the incidence of collar rot disease caused in peanut by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, were evaluated for their potential to produce lytic enzymes during in vitro antagonism. T. viride 60 inhibited highest (86.2%) growth of test fungus followed by T. harzianum 2J (80.4%) at 6 days after inoculation (DAI) on PDA media. The specific activities of chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and protease were 11, 3.46 and 9 folds higher in T6 antagonist (T. viride 60 and A. niger interactions) followed by 8.72, 2.85 and 9 folds in T8 antagonist (T. harzianum 2J and A. niger interactions), respectively, compared to the activity produced by control petri plate T13 (A. niger alone) at 6 DAI. Activity of these lytic enzymes induced in antagonists' plates comprises the growth of Trichoderma isolates. However, cellulase and poly galacturonase were found least amount in these antagonists treatment. A significant positive correlation (p=0.01) between percentage growth inhibition of test fungus and lytic enzymes - (chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and protease) in the culture medium of antagonist treatment established a relationship to inhibit growth of fungal pathogen by increasing the levels of these enzymes. Among the Trichoderma isolates, T. viride 60 was found best strain to be used in biological control of plant pathogen A. niger.
Keywords : Trichoderma isolates; Aspergillus niger; Lytic enzymes; Antagonistic interaction.