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Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte
On-line version ISSN 1806-9940
DERESZ, Luís Fernando et al. Oxidative stress and physical exercise in HIV positive individuals. Rev Bras Med Esporte [online]. 2007, vol.13, n.4, pp. 275-279. ISSN 1806-9940. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-86922007000400013.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by functional and structural changes related to the immunological system. Moreover, increase in oxidative stress (OS) in HIV patients, characterized by a reduction in the glutathione (GSH) levels, increases in glutathione disulfide (GSSG), in the ratio GSSG/GSH and in lipid peroxidation, as well as a reduction in antioxidant enzymes - catalase, superoxid dismutase (SOD) and gluthatione peroxidase (GPx) - is a consequence of the evolution in HIV-infected patients. Higher levels of antioxidant activity are necessary to maintain the immunological system cells redox balance and preserve their function. In an antioxidant depleted state, there is a reduction in the immunological response and an increase in HIV replication. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the clinical evolution of these patients. However, some patients remain showing higher OS and other effects of HAART, such as changes in lipidic and muscle metabolism. Exercise training has been used as a non pharmacological treatment in HIV-infected patients to promote improvements in anthropometrics, aerobic, muscle and psychological outcomes; however, there are insufficient data about the effects of exercise training in OS. This review analyzes the topics related to the oxidative stress in HIV-infected patients and the possible benefits of the physical exercise in the antioxidant capacity. Physical training is a complementary procedure for the patients, with or without use of the HAART, since it improves the cardiorespiratory, muscle, anthropometrics and psychological performance without inducing immunodepression. In relation to oxidative stress, it is inferred, from the data obtained in non-HIV individuals, that the physical training could promote adaptations that minimize the deleterious effect induced by OS through improvements in the activity of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses.
Keywords : HIV; Immunological system; Oxidative stress.