Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte
Print version ISSN 1517-8692
FERNANDES, Tiago et al. Aerobic exercise training corrects capillary rarefaction and alterations in proportions of the muscle fibers types in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Rev Bras Med Esporte [online]. 2012, vol.18, n.4, pp. 267-272. ISSN 1517-8692. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-86922012000400010.
Aerobic exercise training (ET) has been established as an important non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension, since it decreases blood pressure. Studies show that the skeletal muscle abnormalities in hypertension are directly associated with capillary rarefaction, higher percentage of fast-twitch fibers (type II) with glycolytic metabolism predominance and increased muscular fatigue. However, little is known about these parameters in hypertension induced by ET. We hypothesized that ET corrects capillary rarefaction, potentially contributing to the restoration of the proportion of muscle fiber types and metabolic proprieties. Twelve-week old Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR, n=14) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY, n=14) were randomly assigned into 4 groups: SHR, trained SHR (SHR-T), WKY and trained WKY (WKY-T). As expected, ten weeks of ET was effective in reducing blood pressure in SHR-T group. In addition, we analyzed the main markers of ET. Resting bradycardia, increase of exercise tolerance, peak oxygen uptake and citrate synthase enzyme activity in trained groups (WKY-T and SHR-T) showed that the aerobic condition was achieved. ET also corrected the skeletal muscle capillary rarefaction in SHR-T. In parallel, we observed reduction in percentage of type IIA and IIX fibers and simultaneous augmented percentage of type I fibers induced by ET in hypertension. These data suggest that ET prevented changes in soleus fiber type composition in SHR, since angiogenesis and oxidative enzyme activity increased are important adaptations of ET, acting in the maintenance of muscle oxidative metabolism and fiber profile.
Keywords : exercise training; hypertension; angiogenesis; muscle fiber type.