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Brazilian Journal of Biology
On-line version ISSN 1678-4375
MARTINS, M. L. et al. Piscinoodinium pillulare (Schäperclaus, 1954) Lom, 1981 (Dinoflagellida) infection in cultivated freshwater fish from the Northeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil: parasitological and pathological aspects. Braz. J. Biol. [online]. 2001, vol.61, n.4, pp. 639-644. ISSN 1678-4375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842001000400013.
The Aquaculture Center of Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, received fishes for diagnosis from fish farmers reporting fish crowding at pond edges and in water inlets. Fifty-three out of 194 cases showed round to oval, immobile whitish structures, measuring up to 162 mm diameter, identified as the dinoflagellate Piscinoodinium pillulare. In 34 diagnosed cases the parasites were present in the gills, in 2 on body surface, and 9 in both. Thirty-one out of 53 were tambacu hybrids hosts; 7, Piaractus mesopotamicus; 6, Colossoma macropomum; 5, Leporinus macrocephalus; 3, Oreochromis niloticus; and 1, Prochilodus lineatus. Fish showed increased mucous production on body surface and gills, while ecchymosis in the caudal peduncle and operculum was present. The gills also showed paleness, congestion, and petechiae. Histopathology presented a great number of trophonts situated between secondary lamellae, fixed to or detached from the epithelium. Primary lamellae presented interstitial hemorrhages, severe hyperplasia of the epithelium, goblet cells, and mononuclear infiltrates. The present work is the first report of P. pillulare in Brazil and emphasizes the importance of this dinoflagellate which caused significant economic losses from 1995 through 1997.
Keywords : Piscinoodinium pillulare; morphology; pathology; cultivated fish; Brazil.