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CASTILHO-NOLL, Maria Stela Maioli; CAMARA, Carolina Figueira; CHICONE, Maira Favaron and SHIBATA, Érico Hissashi. Pelagic and littoral cladocerans (Crustacea, Anomopoda and Ctenopoda) from reservoirs of the Northwest of São Paulo State, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. [online]. 2010, vol.10, n.1, pp. 21-30. ISSN 1676-0603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032010000100001.
There are few studies on the zooplankton from the northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil, compared to other regions of the State. Cladocerans are a very representative zooplankton group with high species diversity. Most of this diversity can be found at littoral zones of lakes and reservoirs, especially those occupied by macrophytes. This study was part of a thematic project FAPESP/BIOTA Program - The Virtual Institute of Biodiversity (www.biotasp.org.br), and its aim is to catalogue and analyze the distribution of cladoceran species (Crustacea, Anomopoda and Ctenopoda) in pelagic and littoral zones from small reservoirs in the northwest of the São Paulo State, in dry and rainy seasons. Zooplankton samplings were carried out in littoral and pelagic zone of 10 small shallow reservoirs (mean depth: 2.8 m) using a plankton 45 µm mesh net. Water physical and chemical parameters were also monitored with a multiparameter Horiba U10. pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were lower at rainy than dry seasons, indicating high decomposition rates of organic matter introduced from the rural environment, being the main factor contributing to reservoirs' eutrophication. Fifty eight cladocerans species were recorded, with four new occurrences for the São Paulo State. This high richness contrasts with the high devastation of the northwestern region in the State. During the two seasons, littoral zones presented higher cladoceran richness and diversity than pelagic zone. Littoral zones with higher macrophytes diversity also showed higher cladocerans richness and diversity than that with low macrophyte diversity. Littoral and pelagic zones comparisons emphasized the importance of studies on different regions of the aquatic environments, confirming the elevated richness in the littoral zone, as reported in previous works. This study revealed also the strong influence of the macrophyte community and the adjacent terrestrial environment, which is occupied by forest or agriculture.
Keywords : cladocerans; Chydoridae; littoral zone; macrophyte; Northwest of São Paulo State; shallow lakes.