Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial
Print version ISSN 1676-2444
OKAMOTO, Cristina Terumy; BAHR, João Augusto; SILVA, Larissa Luvison Gomes da and NORONHA, Lúcia de. Histopathological and morphometric analysis in the diagnosis of "new" broncopulmonar dysplasia and clinical and pathological comparison with the classic form of the disease. J. Bras. Patol. Med. Lab. [online]. 2009, vol.45, n.2, pp. 155-160. ISSN 1676-2444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-24442009000200011.
INTRODUCTION: The Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains as a major complication in premature infants. The incidence of classic BPD has decreased due to the use of exogenous surfactant and prevention of respiratory diseases in the neonatal period. However, a new and milder form of BPD has appeared, which is associated with incomplete vascular and pulmonary alveolar development. Anatomopathologically, classic BPD is characterized by lesion and repair processeses and "new" BPD findings are alveolar hypoplasia with no fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the morphometric and histopathological alterations in the lungs of deceased premature infants with clinical course consistent with the new BPD by comparing these changes with a control group (without BPD) and with its classic form. Furthermore, to correlate the three groups with the duration of oxygen therapy and other risk factors. METHODS: The population comprised 59 lungs samples from premature infants of gestational age lower than 34 weeks and that had undergone oxygen therapy. The risk factors for BPD were collected from the review of clinical records. The lungs samples were separated into 2 groups: 1 - with classic BPD and 2 - without classic BPD. Group 2 underwent morphometric analysis for alveoli counting and measurement of alveolar area and perimeter. Subsequently, the studied population was divided into: 1 - with classic BPD, 2 - with new BPD (cases with more than 7 days of oxygen therapy) and 3 - control group or without classic or new BPD (cases with less than 7 days of oxygen therapy). RESULTS: Group 1 (classic BPD) had inflammation and evident septal fibrosis. Groups 2 and 3 (new BPD and control) showed minimal histopathological alterations requiring morphometric analysis to separate them. Group 2 (new BPD) showed reduced number of alveoli, area and perimeter when compared with group 3 (control), p < 0,005. There was no statistically significant difference among the 3 groups regarding the risk factors for the development of BPD. CONCLUSION: Both forms of classic and new BPD have a multifactorial etiology, but they are different among themselves. The anatomopathological diagnosis of new BPD may require morphometric analysis. Histopathological and morphometric alterations in this study preceded the need for oxygen for more than 28 days. Accordingly, our histopathological and morphometric findings would justify the establishment of treatment for BPD before the 28th day of life in premature neonates.
Keywords : Bronchopulmonary dysplasia; Morphometric analysis.