Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology
versão On-line ISSN 1677-9452
ANDRADE, Sara A. L. de e SILVEIRA, Adriana P. D. da. Mycorrhiza influence on maize development under Cd stress and P supply. Braz. J. Plant Physiol. [online]. 2008, vol.20, n.1, pp.39-50. ISSN 1677-9452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202008000100005.
The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on cadmium (Cd) accumulation and on the possible attenuation of Cd stress was studied in maize plants (Zea mays L. var. Exceller). Plants inoculated or not with Glomus macrocarpum were exposed to Cd (0-20 µmol L-1), at two P levels (5 and 10 mg L-1) in the nutrient solution. The experiment was conducted in a hydroponic system, using a randomized 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design. The mycorrhiza-Cd interaction on plant growth, nutrients and Cd accumulation, AMF root colonization and on extra-radical mycelium was investigated. Mycorrhiza promoted plant growth whereas Cd addition reduced plant biomass production. No difference in plant Cd concentrations was found between mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants, where Cd accumulated mainly in roots. In general, roots showed a slightly higher Cd concentration in the cell wall than in the cytoplasmic fraction, with M roots presenting 26% more Cd in the cell wall fraction than NM roots. Mycorrhizal plants showed higher P/Cd, N/Cd and S/Cd ratios in shoots and roots compared to NM plants. Mycorrhizal colonization and the length of extra-radical mycelium were diminished by Cd addition, the reduction being more pronounced under high-P supply. Addition of Cd induced guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) activity in roots; however, M plants, in addition to the higher root protein contents, showed no induction of GPOX activity in the presence of Cd, suggesting higher tolerance to Cd. It is concluded that Cd affected mycorrhizal symbiosis by decreasing root colonization and the development of the extra-radical mycelium. Nevertheless, the higher growth and nutrients/Cd ratios observed in M plants indicate an efficient symbiosis capable of alleviating Cd stress.
Palavras-chave : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; Cd distribution; extra-radical mycelium; heavy metals; peroxidase; phosphorus.