SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.17 issue3Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis on flightsSurgical repair of pseudoaneurysms and complex arteriovenous fistula between popliteal vessels author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links


Jornal Vascular Brasileiro

Print version ISSN 1677-5449On-line version ISSN 1677-7301


MACEDO, Guilherme Lourenço de; SANTOS, Matheus Alves dos; SARRIS, Andrey Biff  and  GOMES, Ricardo Zanetti. Diagnosis and treatment of the Nutcracker syndrome: a review of the last 10 years. J. vasc. bras. [online]. 2018, vol.17, n.3, pp.220-228.  Epub Aug 23, 2018. ISSN 1677-5449.

The nutcracker syndrome is characterized by a group of clinical manifestations caused by compression of the Left Renal Vein. The main symptoms are: macro and micro hematuria, proteinuria, and flank pain. Diagnosis is usually made after excluding other causes, because there are no clinical criteria for diagnosis. Confirmation is by Doppler ultrasonography or computed tomography. Treatment can vary, depending on patient characteristics and the severity of the symptoms, while conservative treatment, open surgery, and endovascular surgery may be employed. Currently, open surgery is still the first-line treatment, but some less invasive approaches are gaining acceptance.

Keywords : renal nutcracker syndrome; hematuria; nephrectomy; stents.

        · abstract in Portuguese     · text in English | Portuguese     · English ( pdf ) | Portuguese ( pdf )