Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering
On-line version ISSN 1806-3691
LOUREIRO, J. B. R. and FREIRE, A. P. Silva. Experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers over steep two-dimensional elevations. J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. & Eng. [online]. 2005, vol.27, n.4, pp.329-344. ISSN 1806-3691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-58782005000400001.
This work presents a laboratory study on the behavior of turbulent boundary layers over steep topographic elevations. Two main topics of interest are addressed here: (i) to investigate and characterize the separated flow region that is formed on the leeside of a steep elevation, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of flow stability conditions on the properties of boundary layers also subject to surface changes in elevation. To carry out this task, water channel and wind-tunnel investigations were conducted. For the former research topic, a neutrally stratified boundary layer was simulated in the water-channel of the Hydraulics Laboratory of FEUP. Mean and turbulent velocities were measured through laser-Doppler anemometry. Results provided a thorough description of the inner layers along the hill and inside the recirculation region. The refined near-wall data has contributed to the calculation of the friction velocity along the hill through different methods. For the latter topic, neutral, stable and unstable boundary layers were simulated in a wind-tunnel in the Laboratory of Turbulence Mechanics of COPPE/UFRJ. Simultaneous velocity and temperature fields were measured with the aid of thermal anemometry. These results allowed the characterization of the effects of the stratification on the speed-up factor, i.e. the maximum acceleration of the flow on hilltop. The present paper has introduced the concept of the heat up/down factor, in order to study the behaviour of the temperature field on the crest of the elevation.
Keywords : Flow over hills; turbulence; separation; stratification; hot-wire anemometry; laser-Doppler anemometry.