Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases
On-line version ISSN 1678-9199
BORJA-OLIVEIRA, C. R. et al. Purification and n-terminal sequencing of two presynaptic neurotoxic PLA2, neuwieditoxin-I and neuwieditoxin-II, from Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis (jararaca pintada) venom. J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis [online]. 2007, vol.13, n.1, pp. 103-121. ISSN 1678-9199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-91992007000100008.
Two presynaptic phospholipases A2 (PLA2), neuwieditoxin-I (NeuTX-I) and neuwieditoxin-II (NeuTX-II), were isolated from the venom of Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis (BNP). The venom was fractionated using molecular exclusion HPLC (Protein-Pak 300SW column), followed by reverse phase HPLC (µBondapak C18 column). Tricine-SDS-PAGE in the presence or absence of dithiothreitol showed that NeuTX-I and NeuTX-II had a molecular mass of approximately 14 kDa and 28kDa, respectively. At 10µg/ml, both toxins produced complete neuromuscular blockade in indirectly stimulated chick biventer cervicis isolated preparation without inhibiting the response to acetylcholine, but NeuTX-II reduced the response to KCl by 67.0±8.0% (n=3; p<0.05). NeuTX-I and NeuTX-II are probably responsible for the presynaptic neurotoxicity of BNP venom in vitro. In fact, using loose patch clamp technique for mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation, NeuTX-I produced a calcium-dependent blockade of acetylcholine release and caused appearance of giant miniature end-plate potentials (mepps), indicating a pure presynaptic action. The N-terminal sequence of NeuTX-I was DLVQFGQMILKVAGRSLPKSYGAYGCYCGWGGRGK (71% homology with bothropstoxin-II and 54% homology with caudoxin) and that of NeuTX-II was SLFEFAKMILEETKRLPFPYYGAYGCYCGWGGQGQPKDAT (92% homology with Basp-III and 62% homology with crotoxin PLA2). The fact that NeuTX-I has Q-4 (Gln-4) and both toxins have F-5 (Phe-5) and Y-28 (Tyr-28) strongly suggests that NeuTX-I and NeuTX-II are Asp49 PLA2.
Keywords : chick biventer cervicis; loose patch clamp; nerve-muscle preparation; neuromuscular junction; neurotoxicity; PLA2 neurotoxin; presynaptic action; Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis; Neuwieditoxin-I; Neuwieditoxin-II.