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Einstein (São Paulo)

Print version ISSN 1679-4508On-line version ISSN 2317-6385


SILVA, Stefany Martins; RODRIGUES, Izabella Caroline Gebrim; SANTOS, Rodrigo da Silva  and  TERNES, Yves Mauro Fernandes. The direct and indirect effects of the pneumococcal conjugated vaccine on carriage rates in children aged younger than 5 years in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review. Einstein (São Paulo) [online]. 2020, vol.18, eRW4890.  Epub Nov 25, 2019. ISSN 1679-4508.


To demonstrate the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage status in children younger than 5 years in Latin America and the Caribbean.


A systematic literature review was carried out on the direct and indirect effects of pneumococcal vaccine in the carriage status, after implementation in childhood immunization programs. Studies carried out in children younger than 5 years were selected from the PubMed® and Virtual Health Library databases, and data collected after implementation of pneumococcal vaccine in Latin America and the Caribbean, between 2008 and 2018.


From 1,396 articles identified, 738 were selected based on titles and abstracts. After duplicate removal, 31 studies were eligible for full-text reading, resulting in 6 publications for analysis. All selected publications were observational studies and indicated a decrease in the carriage and vaccine types, and an increase in the circulation of non-vaccine serotypes, such as 6A, 19A, 35B, 21 and 38. We did not identify changes in the antimicrobial resistance after vaccine implementation.


A decrease in the carriage status of vaccine types and non-vaccine types was detected. The continuous monitoring of pneumococcal vaccine effect is fundamental to demonstrate the impact of the carriage status and, consequently, of invasive pneumococcal disease, allowing better targeting approaches in countries that included pneumococcal vaccine in their immunization programs. Our study protocol was registered in PROSPERO ( under number CRD42018096719.

Keywords : Vaccines; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Carrier state; Child; Latin America.

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