Print version ISSN 1679-6225
MALABARBA, Maria Claudia and LUNDBERG, John G.. A fossil loricariid catfish (Siluriformes: Loricarioidea) from the Taubaté Basin, eastern Brazil. Neotrop. ichthyol. [online]. 2007, vol.5, n.3, pp. 263-270. ISSN 1679-6225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252007000300005.
A new loricariid catfish is described from the Tremembé Formation (Late Oligocene to Early Miocene) sediments of the Taubaté Basin in eastern São Paulo State, Brazil. Taubateia paraiba, new genus and species, is based on a single specimen preserved as a ventral-side impression of an articulated partial neurocranium, dorsal elements of the pectoral girdle and anterior vertebrae. The fossil is identified as belonging to family Loricariidae based on obvious overall similarity and the presence of diagnostic derived characters such as: odontodes, dorsal margin of metapterygoid contacting lateral ethmoid, presence of mesethmoid disk (condyle), and compound pterotic-supracleithrum bone. Also, as in most loricariids, the ossified transcapular (Baudelot's) ligament plus basiocciptal lateral process form a prominent transverse wall at the occiput. Other derived characters preserved in Taubateia are synapomorphies at different levels within Loricariidae, including a wide and low parasphenoid, form of pterotic-supracleithrum, shape and position of the mesethmoid disk, a triangular lateral ethmoid with expanded posterolateral corner and a rounded and low ridge articulating with the metapterygoid, and a pointed distal margin of transverse process of the Weberian compound centrum. The derived characters recognized in this fossil are a distinctive combination for diagnosing a new genus and species but not for its unambiguous placements in any of the currently recognized loricariid subfamilies.
Keywords : Tremembé Formation; Fossil loricariid; Oligocene-Miocene; Neurocranium; Taubateia paraiba; Anterior vertebrae.