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Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física

versão impressa ISSN 1806-1117versão On-line ISSN 1806-9126

Resumo

MATAR, Maricel; PARODI, Miguel A.; REPETTO, Carlos E.  e  ROATTA, Analía. Linear modelization of a real spring-mass system. Rev. Bras. Ensino Fís. [online]. 2018, vol.40, n.2, e2306.  Epub 28-Set-2017. ISSN 1806-1117.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9126-rbef-2017-0238.

On university introductory courses, while studying the frequency of free oscillations of a vertical spring-mass system in the case of negligible dissipative forces and massless spring, such a frequency can be simply calculated as the square root of the relationship between the local gravity and the spring elongation. However, when an actual spring is used, the measured frequencies differ markedly below those predicted by the model. The analysis of the static response of the spring to the load reveals that it does not obey Hooke's law and prevents defining a single elastic constant k E in any load condition. By making a linear approximation of this response around the point of work and defining a dynamic constant k D, the resolution of the differential motion equation predicts a value of the frequency much closer to the measured one. A subsequent heuristic correction, which takes into account the mass of the spring, further decreases the relative discrepancy. Our analysis concludes that dissipative phenomena are insignificant compared to the elasticity and inertia of the system studied. This problem and its solution show the need to discuss in the classroom the modeling of this physical phenomenon.

Palavras-chave : oscillations; spring-mass system; Hooke's law; non-linearity.

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