Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia
Print version ISSN 1806-3713
GUIMARAES, Raphael Mendonça et al. Tuberculosis, HIV, and poverty: temporal trends in Brazil, the Americas, and worldwide. J. bras. pneumol. [online]. 2012, vol.38, n.4, pp. 511-517. ISSN 1806-3713. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1806-37132012000400014.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the temporal trends of the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis, with and without HIV co-infection, as well as of the associated mortality, in Brazil, the Americas, and worldwide. METHODS: We collected data related to tuberculosis, with and without HIV co-infection, between 1990 and 2010, in Brazil, the Americas, and worldwide. Temporal trends were estimated by linear regression. RESULTS: We identified a trend toward a decrease in tuberculosis prevalence and mortality, and that trend was more pronounced in Brazil and the Americas than worldwide. There was also a trend toward an increase in the incidence of tuberculosis/HIV co-infection, as well as in the rates of detection of new cases of active and latent tuberculosis. The incidence of tuberculosis was found to trend downward in Brazil, whereas it trended upward worldwide. Tuberculosis incidence rates correlated positively with poverty rates and with HIV incidence rates. CONCLUSIONS: Social inequality and the advent of AIDS are the major factors that aggravate the current situation of tuberculosis. In this context, methodical approaches to the assessment of surveillance activities are welcome, because they will identify situations in which the reported tuberculosis data do not reflect the true incidence of this disease.
Keywords : Tuberculosis [epidemiology]; HIV; Socioeconomic factors.