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Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia
Print version ISSN 1806-3713
ALCANTARA, Cid Carlos Soares de et al. Factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis among patients seeking medical attention at referral clinics for tuberculosis. J. bras. pneumol. [online]. 2012, vol.38, n.5, pp.622-629. ISSN 1806-3713. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1806-37132012000500012.
OBJECTIVE: The identification of behavioral and clinical factors that are associated with pulmonary tuberculosis might improve the detection and treatment of the disease, thereby reducing its duration and transmission. Our objective was to identify sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors that are associated with the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between April of 2008 and March of 2009 at three health care clinics in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. We selected 233 patients older than 14 years of age who spontaneously sought medical attention and presented with cough for > 2 weeks. Sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral data were collected. Sputum smear microscopy for AFB and mycobacterial culture were also carried out, as were tuberculin skin tests and chest X-rays. The patients were divided into two groups (with and without pulmonary tuberculosis). The categorical variables were compared by the chi-square test, followed by logistic regression analysis when the variables were considered significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 41.2%. The unadjusted OR showed that the following variables were statistically significant risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis: fever (OR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.34-4.30), anorexia (OR = 3.69; 95% CI, 2.03-6.75), and weight loss (OR = 3.37; 95% CI, 1.76-6.62). In the multivariate analysis, only weight loss (OR = 3.31; 95% CI, 1.78-6.14) was significantly associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: In areas with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, weight loss could be used as an indicator of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with chronic cough for > 2 weeks.
Keywords : Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Tuberculosis, pulmonary [epidemiology]; Risk factors.