Revista Ciência Agronômica
On-line version ISSN 1806-6690
SILVA, Alexandre Reuber Almeida da et al. Gas exchange in sunflower plants subjected to water deficit at different stages of growth. Rev. Ciênc. Agron. [online]. 2013, vol.44, n.1, pp. 86-93. ISSN 1806-6690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1806-66902013000100011.
This study evaluated gas-exchange responses of the sunflower when subjected to water deficit at different stages of growth. The experiment was carried out at Pentecost, in the state of Ceara, in a randomized-block design of time-split plots, consisting of eight plots, three subplots and four blocks. In the plots, the periods of induction of the water deficit were evaluated at different stages of growth (vegetative, flowering and production formation), which corresponded to the occurrence of the water deficit at one, two or three stages, and in the subplots, the times of evaluation of the physiological characteristics corresponded to the end of each phase (52, 68 and 110 days after sowing, DAS). The crop was irrigated at a level equivalent to100% of the reference for evapotranspiration (ETo), and the water deficit was imposed at half the level that was used in the control treatment. The periods of evaluation influenced most of the variables analysed, except for the intrinsic efficiency of the use of water. The results for leaf temperature and for the rates of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, concentration of internal CO2, and the immediate and intrinsic efficiency of the use of water, showed no effects in relation to the level of water deficit evaluated regardless of the period in which these were applied. Photosynthesis and transpiration decreased with the stage of development of the crop, causing reductions in the immediate efficiency of the use of water. It was therefore concluded that the crop can be irrigated at 50% of ETo throughout the complete cycle without damage to the process of photosynthesis.
Keywords : Helliantus annuus L; Plants and water; Photosynthesis.