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Clinics

Print version ISSN 1807-5932On-line version ISSN 1980-5322

Abstract

ROCHA-E-SILVA, Mauricio  and  POLI DE FIGUEIREDO, Luiz F.. Small volume hypertonic resuscitation of circulatory shock. Clinics [online]. 2005, vol.60, n.2, pp.159-172. ISSN 1980-5322.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1807-59322005000200013.

Small volume hypertonic resuscitation is a relatively new conceptual approach to shock therapy. It was originally based on the idea that a relatively large blood volume expansion could be obtained by administering a relatively small volume of fluid, taking advantage of osmosis. It was soon realized that the physiological vasodilator property of hypertonicity was a useful byproduct of small volume resuscitation in that it induced reperfusion of previously ischemic territories, even though such an effect encroached upon the malefic effects of the ischemia-reperfusion process. Subsequent research disclosed a number of previously unsuspected properties of hypertonic resuscitation, amongst them the correction of endothelial and red cell edema with significant consequences in terms of capillary blood flow. A whole set of actions of hypertonicity upon the immune system are being gradually uncovered, but the full implication of these observations with regard to the clinical scenario are still under study. Small volume resuscitation for shock is in current clinical use in some parts of the world, in spite of objections raised concerning its safety under conditions of uncontrolled bleeding. These objections stem mainly from experimental studies, but there are few signs that they may be of real clinical significance. This review attempts to cover the earlier and the more recent developments in this field.

Keywords : Shock therapy; Hemorrhage; Hypertonic saline; Immune circulation.

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