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Print version ISSN 1807-5932
RAUE, Friedhelm and FRANK-RAUE, Karin. Genotype-phenotype correlation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Clinics [online]. 2012, vol.67, suppl.1, pp.69-75. ISSN 1807-5932. http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2012(Sup01)13.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is an autosomal-dominant hereditary cancer syndrome caused by missense gain-of-function mutations of the rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene, which encodes the receptor tyrosine kinase, on chromosome 10. It has a strong penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinomas and can be associated with bilateral pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is divided into three varieties depending on its clinical features: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B, and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. The specific rearranged during transfection mutation may suggest a predilection toward a particular phenotype and clinical course of medullary thyroid carcinoma, with strong genotype-phenotype correlations. Offering rearranged during transfection testing is the best practice for the clinical management of patients at risk of developing multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 has become a classic model for the integration of molecular medicine into patient care. Recommendations on the timing of prophylactic thyroidectomy and extent of surgery are based on the classification of rearranged during transfection mutations into risk levels according to genotype-phenotype correlations. Earlier identification of patients with hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma can change the presentation from clinical tumor to preclinical disease, resulting in a high cure rate of affected patients and a much better prognoses.
Keywords : Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma; Pheochromocytoma; Primary Hyperparathyroidism; RET-proto-oncogene; Prophylactic Thyroidectomy.