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Clinics

Print version ISSN 1807-5932On-line version ISSN 1980-5322

Abstract

SILVA-FILHO, Carlos R. et al. Application of a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics approach to the free propofol plasma levels during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Clinics [online]. 2018, vol.73, e178.  Epub Feb 15, 2018. ISSN 1807-5932.  http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2018/e178.

OBJECTIVES:

The objective of this study was to apply a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics approach to investigate the free propofol plasma levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions compared with the off-pump procedure.

METHODS:

Nineteen patients scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions (n=10) or the equivalent off-pump surgery (n=9) were anesthetized with sufentanil and propofol target-controlled infusion (2 μg/mL) during surgery. The propofol concentration was then reduced to 1 μg/mL, and a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis using the maximum-effect-sigmoid model obtained by plotting the bispectral index values against the free propofol plasma levels was performed.

RESULTS:

Significant increases (two- to five-fold) in the free propofol plasma levels were observed in the patients subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions. The pharmacokinetics of propofol varied according to the free drug levels in the hypothermic on-pump group versus the off-pump group. After hypothermic coronary artery bypass was initiated, the distribution volume increased, and the distribution half-life was prolonged. Propofol target-controlled infusion was discontinued when orotracheal extubation was indicated, and the time to patient extubation was significantly higher in the hypothermic on-pump group than in the off-pump group (459 versus 273 min, p=0.0048).

CONCLUSIONS:

The orotracheal intubation time was significantly longer in the hypothermic on-pump group than in the off-pump group. Additionally, residual hypnosis was identified through the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics approach based on decreases in drug plasma protein binding in the hypothermic on-pump group, which could explain the increased hypnosis observed with this drug in this group of patients.

Keywords : Coronary Artery Bypass; Cardiopulmonary Bypass; Propofol; Protein Binding; Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacodynamics.

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