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Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Plástica
versión impresa ISSN 1983-5175
FIGUEIRAS, Ricardo Goes. Surgical treatment of pressure ulcers: a two-year experience. Rev. Bras. Cir. Plást. (Impr.) [online]. 2011, vol.26, n.3, pp. 418-427. ISSN 1983-5175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1983-51752011000300010.
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers are defined as lesions of ischemic etiology in the skin or soft tissue. These lesions are secondary to increased external pressure and usually occur over bony prominences. Classification of various stages of pressure ulcers is important for the development of therapeutic strategies. The fundamental surgical treatments are debridement and excision of underlying bursa and involved bone tissue, followed by tissue coverage. This study reports our experience in repairing pressure ulcers and analyzes patient characteristics, outcomes, and complications. METHODS: A total of 33 pressure ulcers were treated in 17 patients, the most prevalent of which was sacral ulcer. The development of pressure ulcers in hospitals accounted for 82% of the cases. Treatment options included debridement, primary synthesis, random skin flaps, rhomboid skin flap, myocutaneous flaps of the gluteus maximus in V-Y, classic fasciocutaneous flaps of fascia lata, fasciocutaneous flap of fascia lata in V-Y, and posterior fasciocutaneous flaps of the thigh in V-Y. RESULTS: Complications occurred in 39% of cases. Preoperative anemia was associated with complications. CONCLUSIONS: Pressure ulcers can be avoided in most cases, given sufficient knowledge of their pathogenesis and correct management of patients at risk. Multi-professional and family participation is essential for the treatment of patients with pressure ulcers since complications, recurrence, and the incidence of new ulcers are common. Complication risk factors such as anemia should be avoided in order to provide a better prognosis and proper closure of the ulcer.
Palabras clave : Pressure ulcer; Surgical flaps; Postoperative complications.