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Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
On-line version ISSN 2176-9451
TANAKA, Orlando et al. Changes in pogonion and nose according to breathing patterns. Dental Press J. Orthod. [online]. 2011, vol.16, n.6, pp. 78-83. ISSN 2176-9451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S2176-94512011000600013.
INTRODUCTION: The soft tissue profile results from complex changes in the hard and soft tissues of the face. The pogonion and the nose are dominant facial structures that determine the degree of profile convexity and should, therefore, be analyzed and included in orthodontic treatment planning. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a longitudinal evaluation of the anteroposterior dimensional changes of the pogonion and the nose of individuals with Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion at two time points during craniofacial development. METHODS: Lateral cephalograms were obtained for 40 individuals - 23 nasal breathers (NB) and 17 mouth breathers (MB). RESULTS: Linear and angular measures were obtained: UL'-Pog', UL'-B', B'-Pog', Pog'-PogTeg', NB Line, Pog-NB, N'-Prn, Prn-NPog, N-Prn-Sn and Prn-Sn-UL. Two-way ANOVA was used to detect differences between mean values according to time points and/or breathing patterns. The UL'-B', Pog'-PogTeg', NB line and Pog-NB, N'-Prn, Prn-NPog, N-Prn-Sn and Prn-Sn-UL variables had significant differences (p<0.05) between the two time points, but there were no significant differences between breathing patterns. No interaction was found between breathing patterns and time points for any variable. CONCLUSION: The pogonion and the nose undergo significant changes in the anteroposterior plane during growth, but breathing patterns do not significantly affect changes.
Keywords : Nose; Pogonion; Nose breathing; Mouth breathing.