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CoDAS

On-line version ISSN 2317-1782

Abstract

NASCIMENTO, Gicélia Barreto et al. Risk indicators for hearing loss and language acquisition and their relationship with socioeconomic, demographic and obstetric variables in preterm and term babies. CoDAS [online]. 2020, vol.32, n.1, e20180278.  Epub Feb 10, 2020. ISSN 2317-1782.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2317-1782/20192018278.

Purpose

To compare the frequency of risk indicators in preterm and full-term babies; to analyze the possible relationships among the presence of risk for hearing loss with language acquisition and socioeconomic, demographic and obstetric variables.

Methods

This is a longitudinal cohort study, with a sample of 87 babies. Gestational, obstetric and sociodemographic data were collected from mothers and babies. The socioeconomic classification status of the families were classified using the Brazilian Criteria for Economic Classification. The risk for language was assessed using the Language Acquisition Enunciation Signs and the Denver II test. The data were analyzed using the STATISTICA 9.1 software, using the chi-square and the Mann-Whitney U tests and simple and multiple linear regression models.

Results

Permanence in a neonatal intensive care (65.52%), ototoxic (48.28%), mechanical ventilation (39.66%) and hyperbilirubinemia (46.55%) were the more frequent risk indicators in the sample. Regarding socioeconomic, demographic and obstetric factors, there was a correlation among prenatal care, gestational age, birth weight, feeding with hearing risk. Acquisition and development of language showed statistical significance with varicella, HIV, Apgar score and birth weight >1500 grams.

Conclusion

Preterm babies showed higher frequency of risk indicators compared to full-term babies. Among environmental factors, prenatal care, which interferes in the outcome of gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score and presence of infectious diseases, as well as feeding, emerged as significant factors related to hearing and language acquisition. Prematurity was the relevant biological factor related to hearing and language risk.

Keywords : Hearing; Language; Child Development; Risk Factors; Premature Birth.

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