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Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria

Print version ISSN 0004-282X

Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. vol.44 no.3 São Paulo Sept. 1986

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-282X1986000300005 

Encefalopatia subcortical arteriosclerótica de binswanger: forma especial de demência associada a hipertensão arterial sistêmica

 

Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy of Binswanger: a special form of dementia associated with systemic arterial hypertension

 

 

Acary Souza Bulle OliveiraI; Ayrton Roberto MassaroII; Carlos José Reis de CamposIII; Eliova ZukermanIV

IPós-graduando em Neurologia - Trabalho realizado na Disciplina de Neurologia da Escola Paulista de Medicina
IIResidente - Trabalho realizado na Disciplina de Neurologia da Escola Paulista de Medicina
IIIProfessor Adjunto Doutor em Neurologia - Trabalho realizado na Disciplina de Neurologia da Escola Paulista de Medicina
IVProfessor Adjunto e Chefe do Depto. de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia - Trabalho realizado na Disciplina de Neurologia da Escola Paulista de Medicina

 

 


RESUMO

A encefalopatia subcortical arteriosclerótica de Binswanger constitui forma especial de demência associada à hipertensão arterial sistêmica, caracterizada por processo aterosclerótico pronunciado nos vasos da substância branca subcortical, poupando o córtex. Com a devida valorização do quadro clínico e sobretudo a utilização da tomografia computadorizada cerebral, é possível o diagnóstico em vida. Relatamos três casos que apresentavam como características principais: presença de hipertensão arterial sistêmica, início de instalação da doença entre 50 e 70 anos, evolução subaguda, comprometimento mental predominante, com pobreza de sinais neurológicos e sobretudo tomografia computadorizada cerebral característica, com hipodensidade subcortical bilateral e simétrica. Em um dos pacientes, que faleceu, foi realizada arteriografia cerebral. Esta evidenciou trombose na artéria carótida interna e pobreza de circulação no território das artérias tálamo-estriadas bilateralmente, principalmente à direita. Os outros dois pacientes, encontram-se sob acompanhamento ambulatorial, fazendo uso de anti-hipertensivos, evoluindo aparentemente com estabilização do quadro neurológico. Apesar de se conseguir identificação bem definida desta doença com características clínicas, tomográficas e etiopatogênicas próprias, ainda ela continua a ser pouco relatada. Seu diagnóstico deve ser considerado com maior freqüência porque, apesar de não existir tratamento efetivo até o momento, é possível tentar sua prevenção mediante controle adequado de hipertensão arterial sistêmica, fator este que parece estar intimamente ligado à sua gênese.


SUMMARY

This encephalopathy is characterized by an important artheriosclerotic involvement of the vessels of the cerebral white matter and a difuse subcortical demyelination, sparing the cortex. The diagnosis is presently possible, ante mortem, by connecting the clinical picture with the CT scan findings, which are essential. Three cases with Binswanger encephalopathy are reported and the following picture was found: age 50 to 70 years old at the onset; dementia with scanty neurological signs; systhemic arterial hypertension; subacute course of the disease; and a CT scan, highly characteristic, that shows bilateral and symmetric subcortical hypodensity. In one of the patients, that eventually died, an angiography disclosed a right internal carotid thrombosis and a diminished flow in the thalamic striate arteries in both sides. The other two patients are aparently stabilized with anti-hypertensive medication. Binswanger encephalopathy is still seldom described in spite of being a very well defined entity. This diagnosis should be considered much more frequently because it is possible to prevent the encephalopathy avoiding systemic hypertension that is probably intimately linked with the genesis of the disease.


 

 

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E. Zukerman - Rua Itacolowi. 601. 6° andar - 01239 - São Paulo, SP - Brasil.

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