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Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria

Print version ISSN 0004-282X

Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. vol.52 no.2 São Paulo June 1994

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-282X1994000200004 

Clinical factors adversely affecting early outcome after brain infarction

 

Determinantes clínicos do risco de vida na fase aguda do infarto cerebral

 

 

Charles André; Sérgio A. P. Novis

M.D. From the Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro

 

 


SUMMARY

PURPOSE AND METHODS: One-hundred-and-nine consecutive patients admitted during the acute phase of a CT-confirmed brain infarction (BI) were studied. Putative adverse influence of demographic and stroke risk factors, previous medical history, clinical presentation, initial and follow-up neurological examination, initial general evaluation, laboratory findings, chest X-ray and electrocardiographic findings, treatment, and topography and etiology of the ischemic insult was analysed. The end-point for assessment was early death (within 30 days). Statistical analysis was performed with univariate analysis and multiple regression.
RESULTS: The main adverse factors related to an increased death risk during the first 30 days were, in decreasing order of importance: coma 48-72 hours after admission; stroke occuring in already hospitalized patients; Babinski sign on admission; minor degrees of impairment of consciousness 48-72 hours after admission; stroke related to large artery atherothrombosis and to embolism; a history of early impairment of consciousness; cardiac failure on admission. In 53 lucid patients on admission, only a history of congestive heart failure (CHF) was associated with a reduced survival rate. In 56 patients with impaired consciousness, the presence of a Babinski sign increased death risk, but the main factor predicting a high case-fatality rate was the persistence of consciousness disturbances after48-72 hours.
CONCLUSIONS: The presence of impairment of consciousness, especially coma, 2-3 days after disease onset, and a history of CHF greatly increase the early case fatality rate in patients with acute BI presenting with or without consciousness disturbances at admission, respectively. The use of a prognostic algorythm considering these few variables seems to predict the approximate 30-day fatality rates.

Key words: cerebral infarction, coma, death, heart failure (congestive), prognosis.


RESUMO

Foram estudados 109 pacientes internados na fase aguda do infarto encefálico. Foi investigada a possível influência prognostica adversa de diversos aspectos da história epidemiológica e médica, apresentação clínica, exame neurológico de admissão e seqüencial, exame clínico geral, exames radiológicos, laboratoriais e eletrocardiograma, tratamento, topografia e mecanismo etiopatogênico da lesão isquêmica sobre o risco de vida nos primeiros 30 dias de doença. Foram feitas análises estatísticas de univariância e regressão múltipla.
RESULTADOS: Os primeiros fatores prognósticos adversos encontrados foram: coma 48-72 horas após a admissão; infarto intra-hospitalar; sinal de Babinski ao exame inicial; graus menores de depressão da consciência; infarto por aterotrombose de grandes vasos ou porembolização; história de alteração precoce da consciência; falência cardíaca à admissão. Em pacientes lúcidos à internação (53 casos), somente história de insuficiência cardíaca associou-se a aumento da mortalidade. Em 56 casos com alteração da consciência, a presença do sinal de Babinski aumentou o risco de vida, mas o principal fator adverso foi a persistência do distúrbio de consciência após 48-72 horas.
CONCLUSÕES: A presença de depressão da consciência, em especial o coma, 2-3 dias após o início da doença, e história de insuficiência cardíaca aumentam grandemente o risco de vida na fase aguda do infarto cerebral. A utilização de um algoritmo prognóstico simples considerando estas variáveis torna mais objetiva a previsão do risco de vida após o infarto.

Palavras-chave: infarto cerebral, coma, morte, insuficiência cardíaca (congestiva), prognóstico.


 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

Aknowledgements - We wish to thank Drs. Ayrton R. Massaro and Maurice B. Vincent for critical review of the text.

 

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Aceite: 7-outubro-1993.