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Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria

Print version ISSN 0004-282X

Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. vol.55 no.3A São Paulo Sept. 1997

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-282X1997000300002 

Epidemiologia dos acidentes cerebrovasculares em Joinville, Brasil: estudo institucional

 

Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Joinville, Brazil: an institutional study

 

 

Norberto L. Cabral; Alexandre L. Longo; Carla H. C. Moro; Cláudio H. Amaral; Haydee C. Kiss

Neurologistas da Clínica Neurológica de Joinville, SC, Brasil: Membros Efetivos da Academia Brasileira de Neurologia (NLC, ALL, CHCM), Preceptor da Residência Medicina Interna do Hospital São José (NLC), Neurologista do Hospital Dona Helena (ALL), Neurologista do Hospital Regional (CHCM)

 

 


RESUMO

A carência de dados epidemiológicos e a impressão prévia de elevada incidência de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) no Brasil criou o estímulo para estudo institucional prospectivo em Joinville. No período de 1-março-1995 a 1-março-1996, avaliamos o primeiro episódio e episódios recorrentes em AVC, incidência, mortalidade, taxa de fatalidade-caso em 30 dias (letalidade), freqüência de fatores de risco, tempo para admissão hospitalar e distribuição dos infartos cerebrais por subtipos patológicos. Registramos 429 pacientes no período, 320 destes com primeiro episódio. Tomografia de crânio foi realizada em 98% dos casos. A taxa de incidência anual ajustada por idade em primeiro episódio de AVC foi de 156/100000. A distribuição por diagnóstico foi: 73,4% para infarto cerebral, 18.4% para hemorragia cerebral e 7,5% para hemorragia subaracnóide. A taxa de mortalidade anual padronizada foi 25/100000. A letalidade foi 26%. Hipertensão, AVC prévio e diabetes foram os fatores de risco mais freqüentes. Somente 25% dos pacientes chegaram ao hospital nas primeiras três horas iniciais. Concluímos que a taxa de incidência em primeiro episódio de AVC em pacientes institucionalizados em Joinville, Brasil, é elevada. A taxa de mortalidade e letalidade são similares as de outras populações.

Palavras-chave: doença cerebrovascular, acidente vascular cerebral, epidemiologia, incidência, etiologia, taxas de mortalidade.


ABSTRACT

The paucity of epidemiologic data, and the previous impression of high incidence of cerebrovascular disease in Brazil, made us elaborate a prospective institutional study in Joinville, Brazil, with the objective of identifying first and recurrent episodes in stroke. This study occurred from March 1995 to March 1996. We evaluated during the first episode of stroke: incidence, mortality and fatality-case rate (in 30 days letality), frequency of risk factor, time in hospital and distribution of cerebral infarcts by pathological subtypes. In this period, 429 patients with stroke were registered, 320 with the first episode. 98% of all the patients were submited to at least one computed tomography scanning. The episodes of cerebral infarcts were divided in pathological sub-types. Results showed that the annual incidence adjusted to the age of first stroke episode was 156/100000. The distribution by diagnosis was: 73.4% for cerebral infarct, 18.4% for cerebral hemorrhage and 7.5% for subarachnoid hemorrhage. The annual standard mortality rate was 25/100000. The fatality case global rate in 30 days was 26%. Hypertension, previous stroke and diabetes were the most frequent risk factors. Only 25% of the patients were assisted within three hours of the onset of stroke. We concluded that the incidence rate of first episode of stroke is high in institucionalized patients in Joinville, Brazil. The mortality and fatality-case rates are similar to the ones of other populations.

Key words: cerebrovascular disease, stroke, epidemiology, incidence, etiology, mortality rates.


 

 

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Aceite: 7-março-1997.

 

 

Dr. Norberto Luiz Cabral - Rua Plácido Olímpio Oliveira 1244 - 89202-451 Joinville SC - Brasil. FAX 047 437 2525.

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