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Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria

Print version ISSN 0004-282X

Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. vol.55 no.4 São Paulo  1997

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-282X1997000500006 

Polirradiculoneuropatia desmielinizante inflamatória crônica: estudo de 18 pacientes

 

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: study of 18 patients

 

 

Leandro C. CaliaI; Acary S. B. OliveiraII; Alberto Alain GabbaiIII

IMestre em Neurologia pela Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP-EPM)
IIDoutor em Neurologia, UNIFESP-EPM
IIILivre Docente em Neurologia, UNIFESP-EPM

 

 


RESUMO

Neste estudo prospectivo, analisamos as características clínicas, evolução e resposta terapêutica de 18 pacientes com a forma idiopática de polirradiculoneuropatia desmielinizante inflamatória crônica, que foram acompanhados por período que variou de 4 a 127 meses. O sexo masculino predominou sobre o feminino (1,25:1) e a idade de início dos sintomas variou de 6 a 85 anos. Observamos a preponderância da forma de evolução progressiva (61,1%) sobre a forma recidivante (38,9%), bem como a baixa ocorrência de fatores predisponentes (16,7%). Todos os pacientes apresentavam comprometimento sensitivo e motor, associado a hipo ou arreflexia, enquanto apenas três (16,7%) apresentavam comprometimento de nervos cranianos. No exame do liquor, as taxas de proteínas estavam elevadas em 88,9% dos pacientes, com média de 203,4 mg/dl. A eletroneuromiografia mostrou alterações desmielinizantes em todos os pacientes, associadas a alterações axonais em 94,4% deles. Em todos os sete pacientes submetidos a biopsia de nervo sural encontramos alterações compatíveis com desmielinização/remielinização. A análise com imunofluorescência, realizada em três pacientes foi normal em um e evidenciou depósito de anticorpos anti-CD3 em dois e anti-HLA-Dr em um. Optamos pela prednisona como tratamento inicial em todos os pacientes, sendo mantida posteriormente em doses reduzidas e em dias alternados em 72,2% deles. Dois pacientes (11,1%) estão assintomáticos mesmo após retirada total da medicação e introduzimos azatioprína, associada ou não ao corticóide, nos quatro pacientes com má resposta à prednisona. Até a última avaliação, 16 pacientes (88,9%) evoluíram com melhora funcional.

Palavras-chave: polirradiculoneuropatia crônica, tratamento.


ABSTRACT

This is a prospective study that describes 18 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), idiopathic type. The patients have been followed for a period of 4 to 127 months. We evaluated the clinical characteristics, the evolution, and therapeutic response. Male patients outnumbered female patients in a proporction of 1.25:1. Symptoms first appeared at an age ranging from 6 to 85. Most of the patients denied the occurrence of preceding events and a progressive evolution prevailed over relapsing evolution. All patients had both motor and sensory dysfunction associated with loss of tendon reflexes, and only three patients (16.7%) had cranial nerve involvement. The cerebrospinal fluid protein levels were increased in 88.9% of the patients and mean level was 203.4 mg/dl. Electrophysiological studies revealed demyelination in all patients and axonal damage in 94.4%. Preponderant characteristics in the sural nerve biopsy of seven patients showed demyelination and remyelination, and changes indicative of axonal damage were often present. The anti-HLA Dr antibodies were found in the sural nerve of one patient and anti-CD3 antibodies in the sural nerve of two. All patients were first treated with prednisone. The drug was mantained in reduced doses and given in alternate days to 72.2% of the patients with success. Two patients (11.1%) are asymptomatic even after the withdrawal of all medication. We administered azathioprine, associated or not with corticoid, to the four patients who had not had a satisfactory response to the prednisone treatment. By the time of the last evaluation 16 patients (88.9%) had functional improvement.

Key words: polyradiculoneuropathy, chronic, treatment.


 

 

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Aceite: 18-julho-1997.

 

 

Dr. Leandro Cortoni Calia - Disciplina de Neurologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina, UNIFESP - Rua Botucatu 762 - 04023-900 São Paulo SP - Brasil.

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