SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.72 issue6Depression increases in patients with Parkinson?s disease according to the increasing severity of the cognitive impairmentPsychiatric symptoms are present in most of the patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria

Print version ISSN 0004-282X

Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. vol.72 no.6 São Paulo June 2014

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282X20140042 

Articles

Cardiac 123I-MIBG uptake in de novo Brazilian patients with Parkinson's disease without clinically defined dysautonomia

Cintilografia Miocárdica com 123I-MIBG em pacientes brasileiros com doença de Parkinson recentemente diagnosticada sem disautonomia clinicamente manifesta

Marco Antonio Araujo Leite 1  

Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento 1  

João Santos Pereira 2  

Clayton Amaral 1  

Cláudio T. Mesquita 3   6  

Jader C. Azevedo 3   6  

Adriana S. X. de Brito 4  

Felipe Villela Pedras 5  

1Departamento de Neurologia, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói RJ, Brazil;

2Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil;

3Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói RJ, Brazil;

4Hospital Barra D’Or, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil;

5Clínica de Medicina Nuclear Villela Pedras, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil;

6Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Myocardial scintigraphy with meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (123I cMIBG) has been studied in Parkinson's disease (PD), especially in Asian countries, but not in Latin America. Most of these studies include individuals with PD associated to a defined dysautonomia. Our goal is to report the cardiac sympathetic neurotransmission in de novo Brazilian patients with sporadic PD, without clinically defined dysautonomia. We evaluated retrospectively a series of 21 consecutive cases with PD without symptoms or signs of dysautonomia assessed by the standard bedside tests. This number was reduced to 14 with the application of exclusion criteria. 123I cMIBG SPECT up-take was low or absent in all of them and the heart/mediastinum ratio was low in 12 of 14. We concluded that 123I cMIBG has been able to identify cardiac sympathetic neurotransmission disorder in Brazilian de novo PD patients without clinically defined dysautonomia.

Key words: Parkinson's disease; dysautonomia; denervation; radionuclide imaging; 3-Iodobenzylguanidine

RESUMO

A cintilografia miocárdica com meta-iodo-benzil-guanidina (123I cMIBG) foi estudada na doença de Parkinson (DP), especialmente nos países asiáticos, mas não na América Latina. A quase totalidade desses estudos inclui indivíduos com DP com disautonomia definida. Nosso objetivo é relatar a neurotransmissão simpática cardíaca em doentes brasileiros com DP de novo esporádica, sem disautonomia clinicamente definida. Foi avaliada retrospectivamente uma série de 21 casos consecutivos com DP sem sintomas ou sinais de disautonomia observáveis pelos testes de beira-de-leito. Com a aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, este número foi reduzido para 14. A captação do 123I MIBG pelo SPECT foi baixa ou ausente em todos os pacientese; a relação coração / mediastino foi baixa em 12 dos 14. Concluímos que a 123c MIBG é capaz de identificar alteração da neurotransmissão simpática cardíaca em doentes com DP de novo sem disautonomia clinicamente definida.

Palavras-Chave: doença de Parkinson; disautonomia; denervação; cintilografia; 3-Iodobenzilguanidina

Parkinson's disease (PD) is classified as a movement disorder. The movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes in which excess or decrease of voluntary and automatic movements unrelated to weakness or spasticity1. Most researchers use the criteria of the PD Society Brain Bank of London for the diagnosis of PD2: bradykinesia associated with rest and/or rigidity and, later on, with disease progression, to postural instability. The classification, the concept, the diagnostic criteria and even the title of the original work of James Parkinson about the disease, “An Essay on the Shaking Palsy”, emphasize the motor disturbances in PD. However, non-motor symptoms (NMS) occur frequently in PD. They might arise several times during the development of the disease, including the preceding motor signs (premotor phase)3. In this earlier period autonomic symptoms (intestinal constipation), sensory (hyposmia), sleep-related (rapid eye movement behavior disorder) and mood (depression) are described4. To support these clinical observations findings, it is theorized that Parkinson's disease (PD) results from a sequence of anomalies that start in the non-motor areas of the bulb and/or parasympathetic peripheral nervous system5. Although they may be overlooked by healthcare professionals and patients, NMS cause disability and loss of life quality6. Vivid dreams, dementia, diplopia and nocturia are examples of the many NMS arising along the PD7. Among the several types of autonomic disturbances described as NMS, a cardiac sympathetic denervation is reported8. In recent years, cardiac scintigraphy, with meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (cMIBG) labeled with iodine-131 (131I) or iodine-123 (123I) have been used in PD for the evaluation of noradrenergic activity of myocardium. This method provides a functional analysis of the sympathetic postganglionic pathway evaluating in vivo the noradrenergic neurotransmission of heart9. Unlike cardiac scintigraphy with meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (cMIBG) 131I or 123I, other methods that estimate the cardiac sympathetic neurotransmission are difficult to implement, expensive and very invasive10. Since 1995, just over a hundred original articles related to the use of 131I or 123I cMIBG in PD individuals have been published11. However, despite the restrained elegance in the development of a great deal of these studies, they included PD individuals affected with comorbidities that cause cardiac autonomic dysfunction, such as diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome12. In some instances the exclusion of patients using drugs that act on noradrenergic neurotransmission is not considered. There are few in vivo studies regarding the sensitivity of cMIBG in detecting a dysfunction and/or injury of the autonomic nervous system in PD early stages. Furthermore, there are very few studies focusing the existence of dysautonomia without signs and symptoms of it in PD individuals13.

Most research on cMIBG in PD was performed in Japan. Goldstein et al.14 and Nakajima et al.15 emphasized the need for more studies about this topic in different other parts of Asia and Europe. To our knowledge this issue had not been addressed in Latin America11.

Our goal is to report 123I cMIBG cardiac sympathetic neurotransmission in Brazilian patients recently diagnosed with sporadic PD without clinically defined dysautonomia.

METHOD

Subjects

We evaluated retrospectively a consecutive series of 21 PD cases followed between January 2008 and January 2010, who met the following inclusion criteria: (a) PD diagnosed according to the PD Society Brain Bank of London criteria2; (b) no licit or illicit drug intake 12 months preceding 123I cMIBG; (c) no previous use of anti-parkinsonian drugs or n-methyl-D-aspartate blockers of memantine type; (d) no previous neurosurgical treatment; (e) appearance of motor signs (bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, postural instability) after 55 years old or more; (f) motor manifestations of PD appearing only one to three year before 123I cMIBG; (g) being native Brazilian, son and grandson of Brazilian (native); (h) having no PD ascendants; (i) have normal Ewing’s tests (heart rate variability, assessed by R-R interval of the electrocardiogram graphing during deep inspiration; cardiac response to Valsalva maneuver; Test ratio 30/15 - immediate response of heart rate when getting up; response of blood pressure response to standing up; blood pressure in response to sutained handgrip)16; (j) no orthostatic hypotension (The Consensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology criteria (1996))17; (k) normal rest electrocardiogram, two-dimensional transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and heart Holter; (l) no complaints suggesting salivation, swallowing, sweating, urination and bowel movements involvement; (m) not suffer from intolerance to cold and/or heat, erectile dysfunction, problems with ejaculation or vaginal lubrication, pre-syncope or syncope.

All PD patients were followed in the Movement Disorders Section at Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense.

Seven individuals were removed due to following exclusion criteria: (a) history of any cardiovascular disease; (b) transplanted individuals; (c) diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, glucose intolerance, diabetes “insipidus”, adrenal insufficiency, anemia, dehydration, gastrostomy, ileostomy, renal failure, azotemia, salt wasting nephropathy, hepatic dysfunction, thyroid dysfunction, alcoholism, AIDS, vagotomy, spinal cord transection, transverse myelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Chagas disease, focal or generalized seizures, postural tachycardia syndrome, orthostatic hypotension, dysautonomia congenital, hereditary or acquired dysautonomia, verified by history, clinical examination and/or complementary tests; (d) participants that during the interval between the clinical evaluation and 123I-cMIBG had used antidepressants, reserpine, guanethidine, phenylephrine, pseudoepinefrina, phenylpropanolamine, antipsychotics, calcium channel blockers, clonidine, alpha-methyl-dopa, minoxidina, moxonidine, barbiturates, anesthetics, bethanidine, alpha blockers, amphetamine, adrenaline releasers, tyramine, beta-adrenergic receptor stimulants, antiarrhythmics, anticholinergics, botulinum toxin, mimics cholinergic or angiotensin inhibitors B; (e) the participant has undergone treatments exposed to occupational and environmental toxins (thallium, lead, arsenic, mercury, carbon monoxide, carbamate, organophosphate and other pesticides); (f) dementia related to PD18 or with other dementia and/or psychotic and/or hallucinations and/or delusion and/or dellirium; (g) claustrophobia; (h) malignant tumors and/or paraneoplastic syndromes; (i) history of sleep apnea or snoring and/or excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome.

Our sample was then composed of 14 individuals with PD who underwent 123I cMIBG.

Myocardial scintigraphy, scales, tests and cut-off values

123I cMIBG was performed in a gamma camera SPECT, provided by digital scanner and low energy high-resolution double collimator (each phototype set to 159 keV). Radiopharmaceutical volume was to 5mCi or 185 MBq 123I MIBG. We calculated the heart/mediastinum (H/M r) ratios scintigraphy uptake in the early stages (e) in 20 minutes, and late (d), 4 hours after intravenous infusion of 123I MIBG, and the washout rate (WR). We consider as normal values for the H/M r (e) when ≥1.8 and (d) ≥1.7, and for WR ≤27%19,20. The Hoehn and Yahr scales21 and the UPDRS22 (sections I, II, III) were applied. Regarding the five Ewing tests, we adopted as the normal value zero or one scores (0 to 10)16.

Statistics and ethics

The statistical analysis was performed applying the Chi-square test with Yates in the software SPSS 13.0 for Windows®. Significance level was considered with α=0.05 (p<0.05, with a margin of error of 5%). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee at Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense.

RESULTS

Clinical aspects of this series and results related to 123I cMIBG are summarized in Table.

Table . The characteristics of the study group. Cardiac 123I MIBG up take in de novo Brazilian patients with Parkinson's disease without clinically defined dysautonomia (n=14 cases). 

Case G IISM TD H/M r WR HY UPDRS
years* months* (e) (d) % I, II and III
1 F 55 13 2.20 1.90 27 1 15
2 M 68 25 1.28 1.10 29 2 40
3 M 73 16 1.54 1.52 18 3 44
4 F 61 28 1.59 1.60 31 2 38
5 F 62 29 1.51 1.40 30 2 45
6 M 64 32 1.39 1.17 34 3 51
7 M 62 26 1.78 1.69 23 3 34
8 M 56 12 1.30 1.27 35 1 17
9 M 70 14 1.81 1.91 13 1 18
10 M 55 30 1.54 1.82 32 3 50
11 F 57 17 1.75 1.66 30 1 19
12 F 58 25 1.34 1.25 43 2 42
13 F 58 28 1.27 1.16 51 2 38
14 F 62 23 1.19 1.12 58 2 23

We observed small H/M r indexes (<1.8 (e) and <1.7 (d)), abnormal in 85.71% of patients (12 out of 14 participants). Both H/M r (e) and (d) was modified in 11 individuals. In one case, only the value of H/M r (e) was abnormal (<1.8). In ten volunteers, we noticed the tendency to have higher rates of H/M r (e) (1.50±0.29). The other four patients presented values of H/M r (d) (1.76±0.12) exceeding the H/M r (e). However, this later difference of reasonshad no statistical significance (p=0.68). The WR was abnormal in 71.43% (10 of 14 participants).

We checked visually the diffuse reduction of cardiac uptake on SPECT in all 14 subjects, evenly in nine cases and uneven in five (Figure 1). In two of them, myocardial scintigraphy with technetium-99m was performed with normal results. The reduction in cardiac uptake in four subjects was so pronounced that prevented the formation of planar topography tomographic images of the heart.

Figure . 123I Myocardial scintigraphy with meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine: planar tomographic images of the heart topography. 

In attempting to correlate the values of H/M r, WR, gender, age of onset of motor symptoms, time of onset of motor symptoms and UPDRS scores, we did not notice, due to the dispersion of data, statistically significant differences and/or clinically relevant. However, we noticed a tendency of changing the values of H/M r with the worsening of PD. We found normal results for both H/M st in two volunteers with stage 1 Hoehn-Yahr. Furthermore, as the disease became more severe (stages 2 and 3), the values became low, especially H/M r (d) (H/M r (e) p=0.054, H/M r (d), p<0.05).

None of the 14 participants expressed any kind of side effect related to the method. Few experienced light discomfort during the examination: two people complained of tolerable cold sensation (low temperature of the examination room) and three, two claimants due to the cold, complained of minor pain or discomfort resulting from venous puncture.

DISCUSSION

In our 14 cases, the longer the time of onset of motor symptoms, greater was the frequency of abnormal values of both H/W r, without, however, having statistical significance for these results. The correlation between the time of onset of motor manifestations of PD and the values of H/M r, provided one more information about our series of cases: in the patients with only normal levels of H/M r (cases 1 and 9), the motor symptoms emerged 13 and 14 months before scintigraphy. Different reasons are speculated as causing changes in the rates of H/M r (e) and H/M r (d). It is possible that the H/M r (e) matches the information on the density of postsynaptic adrenergic receptors and integrity of the presynaptic terminal (sympathetic neurons). But the value of H/M r (d) refers to the pre-synaptic neuron function that includes release, capture and storage of adrenaline23. The late rate decreasing more than the early one, seems to be related to the initial phase of the cardiac sympathetic alteration caused by the PD, in which, during the progression of neuronal pathological process, the dysfunction would precede the estrutural destruction for a while24. The tendency to higher rates of H/M r (e) than the H/M r (d) observed by us (10 patients) had no statistical significance in our sample (p=0.68) and also unable to correlate it to the time of onset of motor symptoms.

There are conflicting reports in the literature concerning the moment in wich PD start changes in 123I cMIBG25,26. These studies, unlike ours, solely considered the H/M r and WR, making no mention about the visual analysis of SPECT planar images. We infer that there was a noradrenergic transmission disturbance by sympathetic denervation despite not being able to be quantified in values. Through immunohistochemical examination, it was proved the existence of cardiac sympathetic oved the existence of cardiac sympathetic denervation in the very early stages of PD, including the initial periods of motor involvement (stage I of Hoehn-Yahr) and premotor (phases 1 and 2 of Braak)27.

We suppose that our restricitve inclusion and exclusion criteria resulted in a small number of cases, providing to the study a homogeneous group without the influence of other factors causing dysautonomia, than the PD itself. We chose to examine only individuals who did not use anti-PD drugs. Furthermore, although some authors consider not to exist any influence of the anti-PD drugs on the results of 123I cMIBG , it was observed that selegiline increases the serum levels of norepinephrine28. Likewise, it was conjectured to have levodopa implication in changing the indexes and images concerning this exam29. Therefore, in our series it was possible to verified cardiac sympathetic denervation determined exclusively by PD. This was possible due to the observation of altered indexes of H/M r (85.71% of cases) and WR (71.43% of cases) as well as the diffuse reduction of cardiac uptake in 100% of participants. In our 14 cases the absence of risks resulting from the use of 123I-cMIBG reinforce the knowledge that scintigraphy is highly secure diagnostic tool.

In conclusion, the 123I cMIBG was able to identify cardiac sympathetic neurotransmission impairment in PD patients. This abnormality was observed in de novo Brazilian sporadic PD patients without signs of clinically defined dysautonomia.

Acknowledgments

To Professor Daniel Cincinatus (in memoriam).

References

. Fahn, S, Jankovic, J, Hallett, M. Clinical overview and phenomenology of movement disorders. In Fahn, S, Jankovic, J, Hallett M (Eds). Principles and practice of Movement disorders. Second edition. Saunders. Edinburgh. 2011:1. [ Links ]

. Hughes AJ, Daniel SE, Kilford L, Lees AJ. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1992;55:181-184. [ Links ]

. Cosentino C, Nuñez Y, Torres L. Frequency of non-motor symptoms in Peruvian patients with Parkinson's disease. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2013;71:216-219. [ Links ]

. Barbosa, ER. Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr 2013;71:203-204. [ Links ]

. Braak H, Rub U, Gai WP, Del Tredici K. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease: possible routes by which vulnerable neuronal types may be subject to neuroinvasion by an unknown pathogen. J Neural Transm 2003;110:517-536. [ Links ]

. Chaudhuri, K R, Prieto-Jurcynska, C, Naidu, Y, et al. The nondeclaration of nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease to health care professionals: an international study using the Nonmotor Symptoms Questionnaire. Mov Disord 2010;25:704-709. [ Links ]

. Chaudhurim KR, Odin P, Antonini A, Martinez-Martin P. Parkinson's disease: the non-motor issues. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2011;17:717-723. [ Links ]

. Lim SY, Fox SH, Lang AE. Overview of the extranigral aspects of Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 2009;66:167-172. [ Links ]

. Goldstein DS, Orimo S. Cardiac sympathetic neuroimaging: summary of the first International Symposium. Clin Auton Res 2009;19:137-148. [ Links ]

. Carrio I. Cardiac neurotransmisson imaging. J Nucl Med 2001;42:1062-1076. [ Links ]

. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=mibg+in+parkinson+disease on January 18, 2014 at 16:48h. [ Links ]

. Leite MAA, Nascimento OJM. Diagnostic accuracy of cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in Parkinson disease. Eur J Neurol 2010;17:9. [ Links ]

. Druschky, A, Hilz, M.J, Platsch, G, et al. Differentiation of Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy in early disease stages by means of I-123-MIBG–SPECT. J Neurol Science 2000;175:3-12. [ Links ]

. Goldstein DS, Holmes C, Cannon RO, 3rd, Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ. Sympathetic cardioneuropathy in dysautonomias. N Engl J Med 1997;336:696-702. [ Links ]

. Nakajima K, Yoshita M, Matsuo S, Taki J, Kinuya S. Iodine-123-MIBG sympathetic imaging in Lewy-body diseases and related movement disorders. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2008;52:378-387. [ Links ]

. Boer CAA, Mocelin AJ, Matsuo T. Ewing’s tests validation for autonomic dysfunction. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 1998;56:250-254. [ Links ]

. Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. The Consensus Committe of American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 1996;46:1470. [ Links ]

. Emre M, Aarsland D, Brow R. Clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2007;22:1689-1707. [ Links ]

. Orimo S, Ozawa E, Nakade S, Sugimoto T, Mizusawa H. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999;67:189-194. [ Links ]

. H Nagayama, M Hamamoto, M Ueda, J Nagashima, Y Katayama. Reliability of MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005;76:249-251. [ Links ]

. Hoehn MM, Yahr MD. Parkinsonism: onset, progression and mortality. Neurology 1967;17:427-442. [ Links ]

. Fahn S, Elton RL. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). In: Fahn S, Marsden CD, Calne DB, Goldstein M, (Eds). Recent developments in Parkinson’s disease. New Jersey: Macmillan Health Care Information, 1987:153-164. [ Links ]

. Agostini D, Carrio I, Verberne H. How to use myocardial 123I-MIBG scintigraphy in chronic heart failure. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009;36:555-559. [ Links ]

. Kashihara K, Ohno M, Kawada S, Okumura Y. Reduced cardiac uptake and enhanced washout of 123I-MIBG in pure autonomic failure occurs conjointly with Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. J Nucl Med 2006;47:1099-1101. [ Links ]

. Ishibashi K, Saito Y, Murayama S, et al. Validation of cardiac (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy in patients with Parkinson's disease who were diagnosed with dopamine PET. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2010;37:3-11. [ Links ]

. Orimo S, Suzuki M, Inaba A, Mizusawa H. 123I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy for differentiating Parkinson’s disease from other neurodegenerative parkinsonism: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2012;18:494-500. [ Links ]

. Fujishiro H, Frigerio R, Burnett M, et al. Cardiac sympathetic denervation correlates with clinical and pathologic stages of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2008;23:1085-1092. [ Links ]

. Sawada H, Oeda T, Yamamoto K, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in Parkinson disease. Eur J Neurol 2009;16:174-182. [ Links ]

. Tateno F, Sakakibara R, Saiki A, Miyashita Y, Shirai K. Levodopa might affect metaiodobenzilguanidine myocardial accumulation. Mov Disord 2008;23:2097-2098. [ Links ]

Received: June 22, 2013; Revised: February 17, 2014; Accepted: March 13, 2014

Correspondence: Osvaldo J.M. Nascimento; Rua Siqueira Campos, 53/1204; 22031-070 Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brasil; E-mail: osvaldo_nascimento@hotmail.com

Conflict of interest: There is no conflict of interest to declare.

Creative Commons License This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.