SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.16 issueUNICOBehavior of sugar cane varieties in sandy soil of the "arenito de bauru" typePhosphate fertilizers for sugar cane author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Bragantia

Print version ISSN 0006-8705

Bragantia vol.16 no.unico Campinas  1957

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0006-87051957000100004 

Feijoeiro manteiga, planta-teste para os vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca do fumo(*)

 

A bean variety useful as a local-lesion test plant for tomato spotted wilt and Brazilian tobacco streak viruses

 

 

A. S. Costa

Engenheiro-agrônomo, Seção de Virologia, Instituto Agronômico

 

 


RESUMO

Entre cêrca de 200 variedades de feijoeiro ensaiadas, a Manteiga foi mais sensitiva aos vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca, formando, nas fôlhas primárias, lesões locais adequadas para contagens. Com o vírus de vira-cabeça as lesões locais apareceram de 3 -6 dias após as inoculações, sob a forma de manchas cloróticas, às vezes com anéis necróticos; com o vírus da necrose branca as lesões se manifestaram em 1 - 4 dias, sob a forma de pontuações necróticas, pequenos anéis necróticos ou, em casos de certas estirpes do vírus, como pintas cloróticas.
Feijoeiros com as fôlhas primárias tendo 2/3 de sua expansão ou mais desenvolvidas deram melhores resultados para o vírus de vira-cabeça; para o vírus da necrose branca os melhores resultados foram obtidos com fôlhas que tinham 2/3 ou ligeiramente menos de sua expansão total.
O vírus de vira-cabeça não se tornou sistêmico em plantas inoculadas mecanicamente. A maioria das estirpes do vírus da necrose branca também não se tornou sistêmica em feijoeiros inoculados mecanicamente. Uma estirpe amarela deste tem a capacidade de se tornar sistêmica em feijoeiros sob determinadas condições.
O sulfito de sódio em solução 0,0125 M, usado na extração do inóculo, aumentou ligeiramente o número de lesões formadas nas fôlhas do feijoeiro Manteiga pelo vírus de vira-cabeça; aumento consideravelmente maior foi obtido com a extração em presença de búfer de fosfato 0,1 M com pH 7, sendo êsse efeito atribuído a um aumento da sensitividade da planta-teste. A mistura de ambos causou aumento igual ou ligeiramente menor que o búfer só.
Para o vírus da necrose branca a presença de sulfito de sódio 0,0125 M durante a extração aumentou consideravelmente o número de lesões, sendo esse efeito atribuído à diminuição na perda de atividade do vírus, devida à oxidação; o búfer sozinho ocasionou pequeno aumento em comparação com a testemunha, mas a mistura de búfer e sulfito de sódio deu o maior aumento.


SUMMARY

Out of 200 bean varieties tested, plants of the var. Manteiga were the most sensitive to tomato spotted wilt (TSW) and Brazilian tobacco streak (BTS) viruses. The inoculated plants developed local chlorotic spots adequate for counts within 3-6 days after inoculation with the TSW virus; pin point or rings in 2-4 days following inoculation with the BTS virus. Bean plants with the primary leaves 2/3 expanded or slightly older gave better results for the TSW virus, whereas they were more sensitive to BTS virus when 2/3 expanded or slightly younger.
The TSW virus did not become systemic in the bean plants. Most strains of the BTS virus also did not become systemic in the inoculated plants. A yellow strain of this virus usually did.
Sodium sulfite at 0.01 M added to the infected tissues during extraction of the inoculum increased the number of lesions formed in the bean leaves inoculated with the TSW virus; the increase was greater when extraction was made in presence of phosphate buffer at pH 7 and at the concentration of 0.1 M. A mixture of buffer and sulfite did not cause a greater increase than buffer alone.
Por the BTS virus the addition of sodium sulfite at 0.01 M during extraction gave a large increase in the number of lesions; buffer alone caused only a small increase, but a mixture of buffer and sodium sulfite gave the highest increase.
Phosphate buffer at 0.05 M and with pH 7 or 8, added prior to extraction, gave a higher number of lesions in case of both viruses than the same concentration of buffer at pH 5 or 6. The use of butter at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.0125 M were tried and did not cause great differences in the number of local lesions, but the best ones seemed to be 0.05 or 0.025 M.
Four concentrations of sodium sulfite, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 M were compared as diluents for the same inocula in presence of phosphate buffer. The two lowest ones gave the highest number of lesions for both viruses.
Bean plants kept for 48 hours under reduced light gave a higher number of lesions than control plants when inoculated with the TSW virus. The increase due to reduced light was smaller when the treated and untreated plants were inoculated with the BTS virus.
Inoculations performed on the upper side of the primary leaves of the bean plants produced more lesions than when they were made on the lower side in case of both viruses.


 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

LITERATURA CITADA

1.  BALD, J. G. & SAMUEL, G. Some factors affecting the inactivation rate of the virus of tomato spotted wilt. Ann. appl. Biol. 21:179-190. 1934,         [ Links ]

2.  BAWDEN, F. C. & ROBERTS, F. M. The influence of light intensity on the susceptibility of plants of certain viruses. Ann. appl. Biol. 34:286-295. 1947.         [ Links ]

3.  ________ Photosynthesis and predisposition of plants to infection with certain viruses. Ann. appl. Biol. 35:418-428. 1948.         [ Links ]

4.  BERAHA, LOUIS, VARZENDEH, MASSOUD & THORNBERRY, H. H. Mechanism of the action of abrasives on infection by tobacco mosaic virus. Virology 1:141-151. 1955.         [ Links ]

5.  BERKELEY, G. H. & PHILLIPS, J. H. H. Tobacco streak. Canad. J. Res. C. 21:181-190. 1943.         [ Links ]

6.  BEST, R. J. The preservative effect of some reducing systems on the virus of tomato spotted wilt. Austral. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 27:1-17. 1939.         [ Links ]

7.  ________ The relationship between the activity of tobacco mosaic virus suspension and hydrion concentration over the pH range 5 to 10. Austral. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 14:323-328. 1936.         [ Links ]

8.  ________ & SAMUEL, G. The effect of various chemical treatments on the activity of the viruses of tomato spotted wilt and tobacco mosaic. Ann. appl. Biol. 23:759-780. 1936.         [ Links ]

9.  ________ The reaction of the viruses of tomato spotted wilt and tobacco mosaic to the pH value of media containing them. Ann. appl. Biol. 23:509-537. 1936.         [ Links ]

10.  CLARK, W. M. The determination of hydrogen ions. Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Co., 1928.         [ Links ]

11.  COSTA, A. S. Beta patellaris, planta-teste para o virus da necrose branca do fumo. Bragantia 10: [275]-276. 1950.         [ Links ]

12.  ________ The concentration of the Brazilian tobacco streak virus in infected plants. Phytophatology 42:231-236. 1952.         [ Links ]

13.  ________ Studies on the Brazilian tobacco streak virus, (em preparo)

14.  ________ & BENNETT, C. W. Studies on mechanical transmission of virus yellows. Phytopathology 45:233-238. 1955.         [ Links ]

15.  ________ & FORSTER, R. Lista de hospedeiras de vira-cabeça. Bragantia 3: [347]-366. 1943.         [ Links ]

16.  ________, LIMA, A. R. & FORSTER, R. Necrose branca, uma moléstia de virus do fumo (Nicotiana tabacum L.) e "fumo couve" como sintoma tardio. J. Agron., Piracicaba 3:1-26. 1940.         [ Links ]

17.  ________ & PINTO, A. J. D'ANDRÉA. Vira-cabega em feijoeiro. (em preparo)        [ Links ]

18.  DIACHUM, STEPHEN & VALLEAU, W. D. Nicotiana rustica as a source of tobacco streak virus. Phytopathology 40:128-134. 1950.         [ Links ]

19.  FORSTER, R. & COSTA, A. S. Nota preliminar sôbre a moléstia vira-cabeça do fumo. Rev. Agric, Piracicaba 13:1-12. 1938.         [ Links ]

20.  FULTON, R. W. Hosts of the tobacco streak virus. Phytopathology 38:421-428. 1948.         [ Links ]

21.  ________ Virus concentration in plants acquiring tolerance to tobacco streak. Phytopathology 39:231-243. 1949.         [ Links ]

22.  KAHN, ROBERT P. & SCHACHTNER, N. D. Further studies on the phosphate effect in plant virus inoculation. Phytopathology 44:494. 1954.         [ Links ]

23.  SAMUEL, G., BEST, R. J. & BALD, J. G. Further studies on quantitative methods with two plant viruses. Ann. appl. Biol. 22:508-524. 1935.         [ Links ]

24.  SILBERSCHMIDT, K. A doença vira-cabeça do fumo. Biológico 3:183-184. 1937.         [ Links ]

25.  ________ & KRAMER, M. Brazilian bean varieties as plant indicators for the tobacco-mosaic virus. Phytopathology 31:430-439. 1941.         [ Links ]

26.  SMITH, K. M. Texbook of plant virus diseases. London, J. & A. Churchill Ltda., 1937. 615 p.         [ Links ]

27.  THORNBERRY, H. H. Effect of phosphate buffers on infectivity of tobacco mosaic virus. Phytopathology 25:618-627. 1935.         [ Links ]

28.  YARWOOD, C. E. The phosphate effect in plant virus inoculations. Phytopathology 42:137-143. 1952.         [ Links ]

29.  ZAUMEYER, W. J. & THOMAS, H. REX. Red node, a virus disease of beans. Phytopathology 40:832-846. 1950.         [ Links ]

 

 

Recebido para publicação em 26 de julho de 1956.

 

 

(*) Tese de doutoramento apresentada à Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" da "Universidade de São Paulo, em Outubro de 1955.

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License