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Bragantia

Print version ISSN 0006-8705

Bragantia vol.19 no.unico Campinas  1960

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0006-87051960000100023 

Efeitos de algumas práticas de cultivo do solo, na nutrição mineral dos citros*

 

Effect of soil management practices on mineral nutrition of citrus tree

 

 

J. Romano GalloI; Ody RodriguezII

IEngenheiro-agrônomo, Laboratório de Pesquisas de Elementos Minerais em Plantas
IIEngenheiro-agrônomo, Seção de Citricultura, Instituto Agronômico

 

 


RESUMO

Diferentes sistemas de cultivo do solo no pomar cítrico foram comparados no presente trabalho, por meio da análise foliar. Os tratamentos estudados fazem parte de um experimento com plantas da variedade Hamlin sôbre laranjeira caipira (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) instalodo no Estação Experimental de Limeira, do Instituto Agronômico. Amostras de fôlhas do ciclo vegetativo da primavera foram colhidas a intervalos regulares, desde outubro de 1957 a março de 1959 e analisadas para os seguintes elementos: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe e Mn. São apresentados os tendências das curvas de concentração dos elementos nutritivos nas fôlhas e os resultados de produção correspondentes a quatro onos de colheita. Como observação mais importante foi verificado que a cobertura morta de capim e a adubação verde de mucuna aumentaram de modo sensível o teor de fósforo nas fôlhas dos citros. As produções de laranja acompanharam a ordem dos níveis dêsse elemento na folhagem.


SUMMARY

The influence of several soil management systems on the mineral nutrition and production of citrus trees was studied. This study was mode in an experimental orchard installed in 1949 with Hamlin orange on sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). Differential treatments were started in 1953. Since 1956 all plots received uniform fertilizer applications and liming. The cultural treatments employed are as follows: clean cultivation with herbicide; clean cultivation plus a cover crop of velvet bean (Stizolobium aterrimum Pip. & Trac.) planted in the spring and cut down in the fall; clean cultivation plus a cover crop of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) planted in the spring and cut down in the fall; molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora Béauv.) mulch; and superficial soil plowing. Leaf samples of the spring cycle were collected from each treatment at regular intervals, from October, 1957 to March, 1959, and analysed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn. The seasonal variations in mineral composition of the leaves were studied in relation to the crop harvest in 1958.
Grass-mulched plots showed low level of nitrogen in the leaves in comparison with those which did not receive this treatment. Therefore, extra nitrogen fertilizer may be required to prevent competition for nitrogen due to mulching practices in citrus orchards.
Mulched plots produced the highest yields every year, followed by clean cultivation plus cover crop of velvet bean, while clean-cultivated plots produced the lowest.
Orange yields and leaf phosphorus levels showed similar trends. From this evidence it seems reasonable a preference for cultural practices which enable the trees to accumulate phosphorus.
Mulch and lime as dolomitic limestone used together increased calcium and magnesium absorption by trees, so decreasing the probability of a magnesium deficiency os a result of the large amount of potassium made available by the mulch decomposition. I ron and manganese absorption by trees decreased in the mulched plots. The low levels of leaf iron were quite consistent in this treatment throughout the seasons.
Clean cultivation plus a cover crop of velvet bean seems to be a promising cultural practice for citrus, regarding the increased orange yields and the low cost of its installation.
The economics use of mulch, assuming the amount of grass required, is limited to the cost in obtaining mulching material.


 

 

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Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

LITERATURA CITADA

1.  CATANI, R. A., GALLO, J. R. & GARGANTINI, H. Amostragem de solo, métodos de análise, interpretação e indicações gerais para fins de fertilidade. Campinas, Instituto agronômico, 1955. 28p. (Bol. n. 69)        [ Links ]

2.  CHAPMAN, H. D. & BROWN, S. M. Anolysis of orange leaves for diagnosing nutrient status with reference to potassium. Hilgardia 19:501 -540. 1950.         [ Links ]

3.  DeWOLFE, T. A., KLOTZ, L. J., MOORE, P. W. & HASHIMOTO, S. Effects of mulches on citrus orchards. Calif. Citrog. 39:422-436. 1954.         [ Links ]

4.  FOSTER, Z. C. Cover crops, green manures, and mulches in management and conservation of the soil. Honolulu Univ. of Hawaii, Agríc. Ext. Serv., 1953. 7p. (Circ. 337)        [ Links ]

5.  FUJIMOTO, C. K. & SHERMAN, G. D. The effect of drying, heating and wetting on the level of exchangeable manganese in Hawaiian soils. Soil. Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 10:107-112. 1945.         [ Links ]

6.  GALLO, J. R., MOREIRA, S., RODRIGUEZ, O. & FRAGA, C. G. (júnior). Composição inorgânica dos fôlhas de laranjeira Baianinha com referência à época de amostragem e adubação química. Bragantia 19:[229]-246. 1960.         [ Links ]

7.  JOHNSTON, J. C. Citrus soil management. Calif. Citrog. 39:368-371. 1954.         [ Links ]

8.  LOTT, W. L, NERY, J. P., GALLO, J. R. & MEDCALF, J. C. A técnica de análise foliar aplicada ao cafeeiro. Campinas, Instituto agronômico, 1956. 29p. (Boletim n.° 79)        [ Links ]

9.  MEDCALF, J. C. Estudos preliminares sôbre a aplicação de cobertura morta em cafeeiros novos do Brasil. São Paulo, IBEC Research Institute, 1956. 58p. (Bol. n° 12)        [ Links ]

10. __________, LOTT, W. L, TEETER, P. B. & QUINN, L. R. Programa experimental no Brasil. São Paulo, IBEC Research Institute, 1955. 75p. (Bol. n.° 6)        [ Links ]

11.  PAIVA, J. E. (neto). Notas sôbre os solos da Estação Experimental de Limeira. Bragantia 1:[611]-617. 1941.         [ Links ]

12.  RODRIGUEZ, O. Manejo do solo em pomar cítrico. Agronômico 9:17-24. 1957.         [ Links ]

13.  SHERMAN, G. D. & FUJIMOTO, C. K. The effect of the use of lime, soil fumigants and mulch on the solubility of manganese in Hawaiian soils. Soil. Sci. Soc. Amer. Prac. 11:206-210. 1946.         [ Links ]

14.  SHUTAK, V., CHRISTOPHER, E. P. & McELROY, L. The effect of soil management on the yield of cultivated blueberries. Proc. Amer. Soc. hort. Sci. 53:253-258. 1949.         [ Links ]

 

 

Recebido para publicação em 14 de outubro de 1959.

 

 

* Trabalho apresentado ao VII Congresso Brasileiro de Ciência do Solo, realizado em Piracicaba, São Paulo, de 20 a 30 de julho de 1959.

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