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Bragantia

Print version ISSN 0006-8705On-line version ISSN 1678-4499

Bragantia vol.53 no.1 Campinas  1994

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0006-87051994000100006 

III. ENTOMOLOGIA
NOTA

 

Surtos populacionais de Bemisia tabaci no estado de São Paulo1

 

Outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci in the São Paulo State, Brazil

 

 

André Luiz LourençãoI, III; Hiroshi NagaiII, III

ISeção de Entomologia Fitotécnica, Instituto Agronômico (IAC), Caixa Postam 28, 13001-970 Campinas (SP)
IISeção de Hortaliças, IAC
IIICom bolsa de pesquisa do CNPq

 

 


RESUMO

A partir de 1991, tem sido observada a presença da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) em altas populações em hortaliças e orna-mentais nos municípios paulistas de Paulínia, Holambra, Jaguariúna e Artur Nogueira. Foram constatadas infestações severas em tomateiro, brócolos, berinjela e aboboreira; nesta última, o sintoma observado em plantas infestadas pela mosca-branca é o prateamento da face superior das folhas, em conjunto com queda drástica da produção. Uma lavoura de tomate severamente infestada por B. tabaci apresentava o sintoma referido colo amadurecimento irregular dos frutos do tomateiro; plantas invasoras presentes nessa área também foram intensamente colonizadas, principalmente Sida rhombifolia L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Solanum viarum Dun. e Ipomoea acuminata Roem. & Schult. Em Holambra, verificaram-se ataques intensos em plantas ornamentais, principalmente crisântemo (Chrysantemum morifolium Ramat.) e bico-de-papagaio (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.); roseiras foral pouco colonizadas. Nessas hortaliças e nas ornamentais, a aplicação quase diária de inseticidas não reduziu a infestação do inseto. Além dessas plantas, campos de algodão, em Holambra, e de feijão, em Paulínia, também foram infestados por B. tabaci. Nos E.U.A., a capacidade de certas populações de B. tabaci de induzir o prateamento da folha em aboboreira e de colonizar intensamente E. pulcherrima, entre outros fatores, têm levado à distinção do biótipo "B" ou "poinsétia", nome vulgar dessa euforbiácea; todavia, estudos recentes na Califórnia (E.U.A.) mostram a possibilidade de se tratar de duas espécies distintas. Dada a similaridade entre as infestações associadas a B. tabaci que vêm ocorrendo naquele país e, mais recentemente, no Brasil, é provável que o biótipo B ou essa nova espécie tenha sido aqui introduzido.

Termos de indexação: Insecta, mosca-branca, Aleyrodidae, folha-prateada-da-aboboreira, amadurecimento irregular dos frutos do tomateiro, anomalias, poinsétia, Euphorbia pulcherrima.


ABSTRACT

Since 1991, an increase in the populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infesting vegetables and ornamental plants in some localities of São Paulo State, Brazil, has been observed. High densities of this insect were verified on tomato, broccoli, egg-plant and squash; in some cases, tomato and squash presented the whitefly-related disorders named tomato irregular repening and squash silverleaf. Weeds, mainly Sida rhombifolia L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Solanum viarum Dun. and Ipomoea acuminata Roem. & Schult., showed high whitefly colonization. At the Holambra county intensive colonizations were recorded on or-namental plants, mainly Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. and Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. (poinsettia). Daily insecticide applications did not reduce the insect infestations. Other crops, such as bean and cotton, were also infested. The disorders and type of infestations are similar to what has been observed in the U.S.A. In this country, the ability of certain populations of B. tabaci to induce the silverleaf disorder of squash and to colonize poinsettia intensely, among other characteristics, has been used to distinguish the "poinsettia strain" or "B strain". However, based on genomic and crossing/mating behavior studies, some investigators have considered that these two strains represent different species. In view of the similarity of the infestations and disorders that are occurring in the U.S.A., and more recently in São Paulo State, it is very likely that the "B strain" (or the new species) has been introduced in Brazil.

Index terms: Insecta, whitefly, Aleyrodidae, outbreaks, squash silverleaf, tomato irregular repening, poinsettia.


 

 

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Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

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Recebido para publicação em 14 de setembro de 1993 e aceito em 9 de fevereiro de 1994.

 

 

1 Trabalho apresentado no 14° Congresso Brasileiro de Entomologia, Piracicaba (SP), 1993.

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