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Bragantia

Print version ISSN 0006-8705On-line version ISSN 1678-4499

Bragantia vol.53 no.1 Campinas  1994

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0006-87051994000100007 

IV. TECNOLOGIA DE PÓS-COLHEITA

 

Resistência a bruquídeos, composição em ácidos graxos e qualidade de cozimento das sementes em genótipos de grão-de-bico

 

Resistance to bruchids, fat acid composition and grain texture in genotypes of chickpea

 

 

Ivânia AthiepachecoI; Scheilla BolonheziI; Maria Regina SartoriI; Jane Menegaldo TurattiII; Dalmo Cesar de PaulaI; André Luiz LourençãoIII

ISeção de Armazenamento e Beneficiamento do Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Avenida Brasil, 2.880, Caixa Postal 139, 13073-001 Campinas (SP)
II
Seção de Lípides e Prótides, ITAL
IIISeção de Entomologia Fitotécnica, Instituto Agronômico (IAC), 13001-970 Campinas (SP)

 

 


RESUMO

O presente trabalho teve por objetivos: (a) verificar possíveis diferenças entre seis genótipos de grão-de-bico (Cicer arietinum L.), selecionados no Instituto Agronômico, quanto à suscetibilidade ao ataque de Callosobruchus phaseoli (Gyllenhal), C. maculatus F. e Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), pragas de armazenamento dessa fabácea; (b) relacionar as diferenças em suscetibilidade com a composição química das sementes, e (c) avaliar a qualidade de cozimento das sementes dos genótipos com características agronômicas mais promissoras para o cultivo. Foram utilizadas sementes do cv. IAC-Marrocos e dos genótipos IAC-Sonora, IAC-Sonora-FE, IAC-GB2, IAC-GB3 e IAC-GB4 de grão-de-bico, as quais foram infestadas separadamente com as três principais espécies de insetos, obtendo-se o número de ovos por fêmea (Callosobruchus), a percentagem de ovos que se desenvolveram até adulto, o período de desenvolvimento de ovo a adulto e a perda de peso das sementes por inseto desenvolvido, parâmetros utilizados para avaliação dos genótipos, cuja composição em ácidos graxos foi determinada, procurando-se relacionar as diferenças obtidas com as diferenças em suscetibilidade. Verificaram-se diferenças de resistência ao ataque de bruquídeos entre os genótipos estudados. O IAC-GB2 foi o menos favorável ao desenvolvimento de C. maculatus, C. phaseoli e A. obtectus. A resistência de grão-de-bico a bruquídeos pode estar relacionada com componentes do tegumento que conferem coloração mais escura e/ou com a composição em ácido linoléico, influindo na oviposição e na alimentação e/ou biologia das larvas. Foi observada diferença na qualidade de cozimento entre os genótipos estudados. O IAC-Sonora apresentou qualidade de cozimento significativamente superior ao IAC-GB2.

Termos de indexação: armazenamento, Insecta, Bruchidae, Callosobruchus maculatus, Callosobruchus phaseoli, Acanthoscelides obtectus, grão-de-bico, Cicer arietinum, resistência a insetos, qualidade de cozimento, ácidos graxos, ácido linoléico.


ABSTRACT

The bruchids have been observed as the most important species in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) storage. Nevertheless, many authors reported in some genotypes of Fabacea differences in susceptibility to bruchids attack, suggesting the use of resistant cultivars as a method to avoid infestation during storage. The Instituto Agronômico of Campinas (IAC), State of São Paulo, Brazil, has been selecting chickpeas genotypes suitable to local conditions. The main objective of this research was to verify the occurrence of resistance to Callosobruchus phaseoli (Gyllenhal), C. maculatus F. and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) in six chickpeas genotypes during storage. The genotypes were: cv. IAC-Marrocos, IAC-Sonora, IAC Sonora-FE, IAC-GB2, IAC-GB3 and IAC-GB4. Each of them was infested by insects of the three main species. The differences in resistance were evaluated by: (a) the percentage of eggs developed until adult phase, (b) period from egg to adult, (c) loss of weight in seeds per insect developed and (d) the number of eggs per female, the last one was applied only for Callosobruchus species. The seeds chemical composition, fat acids, was evaluated in order to establish a relationship with the seeds resistance or susceptibility. The cultivars IAC-Marrocos and IAC-GB2 showed evidences of resistance to bruchids. IAC-Sonora and IAC-Sonora-FE, which have the best agricultural characteristics, had their seeds cooking quality analyzed. Differences in bruchids attack were observed among the six chickpeas genotypes. IAC-GB2 was the less susceptible to C. maculatus, C. phaseoli and A. obtectus. The resistance to bruchids in chickpea may be related to tegument components as pigments, in dark tegument genotypes, and to the presence of linoleic acid, affecting oviposition and also larval feeding and/or larval biology. Cooking quality differed among genotypes. Cooking quality of IAC-Sonora was significatively higher than that of IAC-GB2.

Index terms: storage, Insecta, Bruchidae, Callosobruchus maculatus, Callosobruchus phaseoli, Acanthoscelides obtectus, chickpea, Cicer arietinum, resistance to insects, cooking quality, fat acids, linoleic acid.


 

 

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Recebido para publicação em 23 de outubro de 1993 e aceito em 9 de fevereiro de 1994.

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