Print version ISSN 0031-1049
Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) vol.52 no.22 São Paulo 2012
Contribution towards the knowledge of Rhinotragini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). V. Reconsideration of Rhopalessa rubroscutellaris (Tippmann, 1960)
Robin O.S. ClarkeI; Ubirajara R. MartinsII,III; Antonio Santos-SilvaII,IV
IHotel Flora & Fauna, Casilla 2097, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. E-mail: email@example.com
IIMuseu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. Caixa Postal 42.494, 04218-970, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
IIICNPq Researcher. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Corrections to the revision of Rhopalessa Bates, 1873 (Clarke et al. 2011), with the transfer of two species to a new genus, Rashelapso: R. durantoni (Peñaherrera-Leiva & Tavakilian, 2004) comb. nov., and R. schmidi sp. nov. (previously considered to be conspecific with Ommata (Rhopalessa) rubroscutellaris Tippmann, 1960 by the authors). Ommata (Rhopalessa) rubroscutellaris is now considered a junior synonym of Laedorcari fulvicollis (Lacordaire, 1868).
Key-Words: Cerambycinae; New genus; Revision; Synonymy; Taxonomy.
Correções para a revisão de Rhopalessa Bates, 1873 (Clarke et al. 2011), com transferência de duas espécies para o novo gênero Rashelapso: R. durantoni (Peñaherrera-Leiva & Tavakilian, 2004) comb. nov. e R. schmidi sp. nov. (previamente considerada coespecífica com Ommata (Rhopalessa) rubroscutellaris Tippmann, 1960 pelos autores). Ommata (Rhopalessa) rubroscutellaris é considerada um sinônimo júnior de Laedorcari fulvicollis (Lacordaire, 1868).
Palavras-Chave: Cerambycinae; Novo gênero; Revisão; Sinonímia; Taxonomia.
Recently, Clarke et al. (2011) reviewed the genus Rhopalessa Bates, 1873, and divided it into two groups:
The rubroscutellaris group Elytra with: humero-apical costae well developed, carinate and complete; apical fourth distinctly inclined laterally; apex narrow and inclined downwards. This group included two species: Rhopalessa durantoni (Peñaherrera-Leiva & Tavakilian, 2004); R. rubroscutellaris (Tippmann, 1960);
The clavicornis group Elytra with: humero-apical costae poorly developed and incomplete; apical fourth almost flat; apex wide and slightly inclined downwards. Six species were included into this group: Rhopalessa clavicornis (Bates, 1873), type species; R. demissa (Melzer, 1934); R. hirticollis (Zajciw, 1958); R. moraguesi (Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2003); R. pilosicollis (Zajciw, 1966); R. subandina Clarke et al., 2011.
The recent discovery of the depository for the holotype of Rhopalessa rubroscutellaris (Tippmann, 1960) has enabled the authors to provide an improved classification of the genus Rhopalessa.
Material and Methods
The acronyms used in this study are as follows: HSPC, Herbert Schmid Private Collection, Vienna, Austria; MZUSP, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; USNM, National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., USA.
The holotype of Ommata (Rhopalessa) rubroscutellaris was examined through photographs sent by Herbert Schmid, who also sent some information on the specimen.
Tippmann (1960) described Ommata (Rhopalessa) rubroscutellaris from a single female collected in the Chapare, Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia.
Monné (2005) stated that the depository for Tippmanns holotype of Ommata (Rhopalessa) rubroscutellaris was unknown; and, although most of Tippmanns collection is deposited at the USNM, Steven W. Lingafelter (pers. com.) was unable to find Tippmanns holotype in their collection.
However, a search amongst the MZUSP collection found two unidentified specimens which seemed to match Tippmanns description of Ommata (Rhopalessa) rubroscutellaris, a conclusion supported by the locality where these specimens were collected (Mato Grosso), adjacent to Bolivias north-eastern frontier with Brazil.
Although Clarke et al. (2011) considered the Mato Grosso specimens to be conspecific with Tippmanns R. rubroscutellaris, they did so with some reservation; expressing their doubt when they discussed the rubroscutellaris group: "the two groups of Rhopalessa, apparently, constitute two distinct genera. However, as we did not examine specimens of R. durantoni and, as it is impossible to be sure that the species here considered as R. rubroscutellaris is that described by Tippmann (1960), we opted to use groups of species instead".
Following the publication of the revision of Rhopalessa, Herbert Schmid (HSPC) informed the authors that he had the holotype of O.?(R.) rubroscutellaris, among specimens from the ex Collection Fuchs. According to him, Ernst Fuchs frequently exchanged specimens with Friedrich F. Tippmann.
With photographs of the holotype of Ommata (Rhopalessa) rubroscutellaris, kindly sent by Herbert Schmid, we are able to confirm that the two species placed in the rubroscutellaris group justify the establishment of a new genus for them; and the revised status of Ommata (Rhopalessa) rubroscutellaris Tippmann is discussed below.
Laedorcari fulvicollis (Lacordaire, 1868)
Ommata fulvicolle Lacordaire, 1868:503 (note).
Xenocrasis fulvicollis; Monné & Martins, 1974:22; Monné, 2005:508 (cat.).
Xenocrasis obscuripennis Zajciw, 1963:254; Monné & Martins, 1974:37 (syn.).
Ommata (Rhopalessa) rubroscutellaris Tippmann, 1960:121; Monné, 1993:20 (cat.); Monné & Giesbert, 1994:97 (checklist); Monné, 2005:495 (cat.); Monné & Hovore, 2005:123 (checklist); 2006:122 (checklist); Wappes et al., 2006:17 (checklist). Syn. nov.
Remarks: when Tippmann (1960) described Ommata (Rhopalessa) rubroscutellaris he did not provide a figure. The photos of the holotype (Figs. 1-3) of O.?(R.) rubroscutellaris clearly show that the species cannot be assigned to the genus Rhopalessa Bates, 1873, but is a female of Laedorcari fulvicollis (Lacordaire, 1868).
Laedorcari Santos-Silva et al., 2011 differs notably from Rhopalessa, mainly by the broadly open procoxal cavities, and short antennae (in Rhopalessa the procoxal cavities are closed, and the antennae much longer). Other important differences are: in Laedorcari elytral fifth somewhat gibbous, and urosternite V strongly elevated laterally (in Rhopalessa the elytral fifth are not gibbous, and urosternite V not elevated laterally).
Santos-Silva et al. (2011) recorded L. fulvicollis from Peru, Colombia, and Brazil (Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, Amazonas). With the new synonymy, the species is now recorded for Bolivia.
Rashelapso gen. nov.
Rhopalessa, grupo rubroscutellaris Clarke et al., 2011:327.
Etymology: Anagram of the genus-group name Rhopalessa. Masculine gender.
Type species: Rashelapso schmidi sp. nov.
Diagnosis: Rashelapso gen. nov. differs from Rhopalessa Bates, 1873, by the characters separating the rubroscutellaris and clavicornis groups in the introduction.
Description: Small species, around 7 mm in length. Integument metallic or almost so, more strongly on elytra.
Male Head not elongated behind eyes (posterior edge of eyes near the anterior edge of prothorax); rostrum (between the apex of inferior ocular lobe and genal apex) short (at most, about one third the length of inferior ocular lobe in frontal view). Eyes large, distinctly emarginated. Inferior lobes of eyes almost contiguous. Antennae longer than elytra; basal antennomeres filiform, distal ones gradually enlarged to form a not well delimited club.
Prothorax subcylindrical and elongate; wider at base than apex; sides somewhat widened at middle, but not tuberculate. Pronotal punctures alveolate. Procoxal cavities closed or slightly open. Prosternal process strongly narrowed mesally, truncated and inclined towards dorsad. Mesosternal process not abrupt at base; width ca. two-thirds width of mesocoxal cavity. Humeri hiding mesepisterna when viewed dorsally. Metasternum somewhat tumid adjacent to metacoxae. Metepisterna narrow and subrectangular (base not widened and apex slightly acuminate).
Scutellum pubescent, moderately elongate. Elytra long, reaching middle of urosternite V; slightly narrowed towards apex; disc almost flat (except adjacent to scutellum, where it is slightly elevated); without vitreous or translucent areas; surface coarsely, very densely punctate; humero-apical costae very distinct from humerus to near apex; apical fourth of elytra distinctly inclined laterally; elytral apex narrow and inclined downwards.
Pro- and mesocoxae without spicule. Femora clavate; peduncle of profemora relatively long, and long in mesofemora; apex of metafemora passing elytral apex. Metatibiae without brush of hairs. Metatarsomere I slender, slightly longer than II+III.
Abdomen narrow, cylindrical, elongated; apex not curved downwards; lateral margins subparallel between urosternites I-IV. Abdominal process moderately inclined. Urosternite V centrally flat, not laterally elevated.
Female inferior lobes of eyes much further apart than in males; abdomen proportionally longer; abdominal process almost planar with surface of urosternite I.
Species included: Rashelapso durantoni (Peñaherrera-Leiva & Tavakilian, 2004); R. schmidi sp. nov.
Key to the species of Rashelapso
1. Elytra shining black, basally with reddish fascia centred on scutellum (Fig. 4). Brazil (Mato Grosso) R. schmidi sp. nov.
Elytra metallic emerald-green or blue, without basal spot. French Guiana R. durantoni (Peñaherrera-Leiva & Tavakilian, 2004)
Rashelapso schmidi sp. nov.
Rhopalessa rubroscutellaris; Clarke et al., 2011:336 (error of identification).
Diagnosis: Males of Rashelapso schmidi sp. nov. are characterized by: antennae proportionally short; prothorax reddish; elytra with triangular, reddish fascia centred on the scutellum.
Male (Fig. 4): integument blackish. Area of head adjacent to prothorax encircled by reddish band, projected between superior ocular lobes; prothorax completely reddish; mesosterna reddish; elytral base with narrow triangular fascia centred on scutellum, which may reach the humeri; scutellum reddish; antennomeres V-XI basally annulated with orange.
Rostrum, margins of inferior ocular lobes, and area between superior ocular lobes with grayish-white pubescence. Distance between inferior ocular lobes equal to one tenth width of one lobe; and between superior lobes less than three times width of one lobe. Length of antennae 1.5 length of elytra; length of antennomeres VIII-X subequal, shorter than XI. Midline of pronotum elevated and moderately wide, slight passing middle of pronotum; punctation coarse and abundant, in part confluent, finer and sparser on apical area of disc; disc with mixture of very short and long hairs.
Elytra with mixture of short and long hairs, the latter restricted to basal third; punctation coarse and abundant throughout; elytral margins slightly contracted at middle; apex convex, and narrowly rounded. Prosternum almost glabrous for apical third; rest of prosternum, and meso- and metasternum with mixture of dense, grayish-white, recumbent pubescence and longer, sparser, semi-erect hairs.
Femora with moderately conspicuous mixture of long and short hairs. Urosternites with mixture of short, grayish-white pubescence and longer hairs; centre of urosternite V without brush of hairs.
Variation (paratype): mesosterna brownish; antennal length equal to 1.4 times elytral length.
Dimensions in mm (2 males): Total length (including mandibles), 6.00-6.70; prothoracic length, 1.25-1.40; anterior prothoracic width, 0.80-0.90; posterior prothoracic width, 0.90-1.00; humeral width, 1.10-1.25; elytral length, 4.10-4.60. The largest dimensions are those of the holotype.
Type material: BRAZIL, Mato Grosso: Utiariti (Rio Papagaio), holotype and paratype males, 01-12.XI.1966, Lenko & Pereira col. (MZSUP).
Etymology: The species is dedicated to Herbert Schmid in recognition of his help with our work on the Rhinotragini.
We are much indebted to Herbert Schmid for the photos and information on the holotype of Ommata (Rhopalessa) rubroscutellaris, and Steven W. Lingafelter of USNM for his search for the missing holotype.
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Aceito em: 07.02.2012
Publicado em: 29.06.2012