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Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia

Print version ISSN 0031-1049

Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) vol.52 no.25 São Paulo  2012

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0031-10492012002500001 

A new dwarf species, new distribution records, and supplementary descriptive notes of the centipede genus Ityphilus Cook, 1899 (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Ballophilidae) from central Amazonia, Brazil

 

 

Luis Alberto Pereira

CONICET and Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo (División Zoología Invertebrados), Paseo del Bosque s/n, (1900) La Plata, Argentina. E-mail: lpereira@fcnym.unlp.edu.ar

 

 


ABSTRACT

A new dwarf species of the centipede genus Ityphilus Cook, 1899, named I. donatellae sp. nov. (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Ballophilidae) is hereby proposed on the basis of specimens from the vicinity of Manaus, Central Amazonia (Brazil), previously identified as Ityphilus calinus Chamberlin, 1957 (hereby designated holotype female, paratype male and paratype female). Supplementary morphological data and new illustrations are provided after this type material. The new species, characterized by having the internal edge of the forcipular tarsungulum serrate, is herein included in a key that will enable the identification of the 10 other Neotropical members of the genus Ityphilus sharing the same trait. New distribution records and supplementary descriptive notes for Ityphilus crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994, and Ityphilus demoraisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1995 (including the first description of the male of the latter), are also given. Undiluted 2-Phenoxyethanol (CAS No. 122-99-6) has been used as an effective clearing agent/mounting medium for the preparation of temporary mounts of all body parts of the examined specimens.

Key-Words: Ityphilus; Taxonomy; New species; New distribution records; Central Amazonia; Brazil; Geophilomorpha; Ballophilidae.


RESUMEN

Una nueva especie enana del género de ciempiés Ityphilus Cook, 1899, denominada I. donatellae sp. nov. (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Ballophilidae), es aquí propuesta sobre la base de ejemplares provenientes de las cercanías de Manaus, Amazonia Central (Brasil), previamente identificados como Ityphilus calinus Chamberlin, 1957 (aquí designados holotipo hembra, paratipo macho y paratipo hembra). Datos morfológicos suplementarios y nuevas ilustraciones son provistos sobre la base de este material tipo. La nueva especie, caracterizada por tener el borde interno de la tarsungula forcipular serrado, es aquí incluida en una clave que permitirá la identificación de todos los miembros neotropicales del género Ityphilus que comparten el mismo carácter. Nuevos registros de distribución y notas descriptivas suplementarias para Ityphilus crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994, e Ityphilus demoraisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1995 (incluyendo la primera descripción del macho de esta última) son también brindados. Se ha utilizado 2-Phenoxyethanol (CAS No. 122-99-6) no diluido, como un efectivo agente de diafanización (y a la vez medio de montaje), para la realización de preparaciones microscópicas transitorias de todas las partes del cuerpo de los especímenes examinados.

Palabras-Clave: Ityphilus; Taxonomía; Nueva especie; Nuevos registros de distribución; Amazonia Central; Brasil; Geophilomorpha; Ballophilidae


 

 

INTRODUCTION

In a former contribution to taxonomy of Neotropical geophilomorphs (Pereira et al., 2000), a few tiny ballophilid specimens collected near Manaus, Central Amazon (Brazil), were assigned to Ityphilus calinus Chamberlin, 1957, whose type locality is in Colombia: 13 miles West of Santiago de Cali (Southern region of the Cauca River Valley). A redescription of the taxon was also given (based on those specimens), but stating that the identification was provisional since they could belong to a new species. On the basis of current criteria for species discrimination within the genus Ityphilus, it may be concluded in the present contribution that the data given by Chamberlin in his original description of I. calinus (including the traits that can be deduced from the single accompanying figure), although very scarce, are important enough to confidently consider the mentioned material from Brazil as belonging to a different species (and new to science), which is herein proposed under the name of Ityphilus donatellae.

A chance to examine additional ballophilid specimens from Central Amazonia (currently deposited at the Museo de La Plata, but never cited in previous publications), permits the addition of new distribution records and supplementary descriptive notes for Ityphilus crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994, and Ityphilus demoraisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1995 (including the first description of the male of the latter).

The genus Ityphilus Cook, 1899, can be distinguished from the other genera recognized in the family Ballophilidae by the following combination of features: (1) antennae somewhat curved at middle to truly geniculate, distally slightly thickened to strongly clavate; (2) mid-piece of labrum membranous, without teeth or with minute hair-like structures; (3) forcipular coxosternite with incomplete to nearly complete chitin-lines; (4) internal edge of forcipular tarsungulum smooth or serrate; (5) ventral pore-fields of anterior region of the body single (subcircular to transversally elliptical in shape), those of posterior region, single or divided into two areas; (6) coxopleura of the ultimate leg-bearing segment each with two internal coxal organs of simple structure ("homogeneous coxal glands", sensu Brölemann & Ribaut (1912)); (7) legs of the ultimate pair with seven articles; (8) ultimate pretarsus setiform, basally tubercle-like and usually accompanied by a minute spine.

Of the twenty three species currently assigned to Ityphilus, the vast majority of them (eighteen, in addition to the new species proposed herein) occur in the Neotropics; the key below, will enable the identification of those Neotropical members having the internal edge of the forcipular tarsungulum serrate (including I. donatellae sp. nov., which shares this trait).

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The new material herein reported is currently deposited at the Museo de La Plata (MLP); the type materials herein designated and examined are housed at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), and the MLP, as indicated under each species.

The specimens were dissected through a stereomicroscope, examined, and illustrated in detail using a compound microscope equipped with a drawing tube attachment (the latter was used to delineate the figures and also measured directly in mm with an objective micrometer). Temporary mounts were prepared by direct transfer of the specimens from the preservation liquid (70 per cent ethanol) onto microscope slides. The clearing agent/mounting medium used was undiluted 2-Phenoxyethanol (CAS No. 122-99-6). No additional steps were carried out before mounting. (The slides were temporarily stored in hermetic acrylic boxes to avoid evaporation of this fluid). Details of the preparation of microscope slides and dissection procedures are described in Pereira (2000), Foddai et al. (2002). All measurements are given in mm. Terminology for external anatomy follows Bonato et al. (2010). The following abbreviation was used in the text and legends of the figures: a.a. - antennal article/articles.

 

RESULTS

Family Ballophilidae

Genus Ityphilus Cook, 1899

Type species of the genus: Ityphilus lilacinus Cook, 1899, by original designation.

Neotropical species currently included in the genus: I. betschi Pereira, 2010 (French Guiana); I. calinus Chamberlin, 1957 (Colombia); I. cavernicolus (Matic, Negrea & Fundora Martinez, 1977) (Cuba); I. ceibanus Chamberlin, 1922 (Honduras); I. crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994 (Brazil); I. demoraisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1995 (Brazil); I. grandis (Turk, 1955) (Peru); I. guianensis Chamberlin, 1921 (Guyana, Trinidad, Brazil); I. idanus Crabill, 1960 (British West Indies: Barbuda); I. krausi Pereira & Minelli, 1996 (Peru); I. lilacinus Cook, 1899 (Bahama Islands: South Bimini, Cuba, Puerto Rico, USA); I. mauriesi Demange & Pereira, 1985 (French Antilles: Guadeloupe); I. palidus (Matic, Negrea & Fundora Martinez, 1977) (Cuba); I. perrieri (Brölemann, 1909) (Brazil); I. polypus (Matic, Negrea & Fundora Martinez, 1977) (Cuba); I. saucius Pereira, Foddai & Minelli, 2000 (Brazil); I. savannus Chamberlin, 1943 (Mexico); I. sensibilis Pereira, Foddai & Minelli, 2000 (Brazil).

Ityphilus donatellae sp. nov.
(Figs. 1-14)

Ityphilus calinus: Pereira, Foddai & Minelli, 2000:1, 6-8 (non Ityphilus calinus Chamberlin, 1957).

Diagnosis: An Ityphilus species with internal edge of forcipular tarsungulum partially serrate, very small body size (8.5 to 11 mm), and low number of leg-bearing segments (41 or 43). Among the other Neotropical members of the genus, it only shares the last trait with Ityphilus calinus Chamberlin, 1957. Ityphilus donatellae sp. nov. can be principally differentiated from I. calinus on the basis of the following selected traits (those for the latter are given in parentheses): antennae curved at middle, truly geniculate, Figs. 1, 9, 10, 12 ("curved at middle but not truly geniculate", Fig. 26); antennae distally strongly clavate, Figs. 1, 9, 10, 12 (antennae distally slightly thickened, Fig. 26); a.a. XIV wider than long, in the proportion ca. 0.93: 1, Figs. 1, 9, 10, 12 (a.a. XIV longer than wide in the proportion ca. 1.49: 1, Fig. 26). Other traits differentiating both species, as in Table 1.

Remarks: The differential characters listed in the previous lines and Table 1 (especially those related to the antennae) are stable enough in ballophilids, thus giving confidence in considering the specimens assigned to Ityphilus calinus in Pereira et al. (2000), as belonging to a species different to it, and new for the genus.

Among the Neotropical species of Ityphilus, I. crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994 and I. guianensis Chamberlin, 1921 (both with forcipular tarsungulum serrate) share with I. donatellae a roughly similar range of leg-bearing segments. I. calinus Chamberin, 1957 and I. savannus Chamberlin, 1943 (of which it is unknown whether the forcipular tarsungulum is serrate or smooth) also share a similar range. Ityphilus donatellae can be separated from I. calinus as shown in Table 1. It can be confidently differentiated from the other three taxa, by means of the following selected traits (the corresponding features for the new species are given in parentheses):

— I. crabilli: male with 47, female with 47, 49, 51, 53 leg-bearing segments; body length 15 mm for males, 21 mm for females; antennae apically moderately clavate; specialized sensilla on apex of a.a. XIV with two very small apical branches; coxosternite of first maxillae with lappets; chitin-lines of forcipular coxosternite incomplete. (Male with 41, female with 43 leg-bearing segments; body length 8.5 mm in the male, 11 mm in females; antennae apically strongly clavate, Figs. 1, 9, 10, 12; specialized sensilla on apex of a.a. XIV not split apically; coxosternite of first maxillae without lappets, Fig. 3; chitin-lines of forcipular coxosternite complete, Fig. 4: a).

— I. guianensis: clypeus with ca. six setae; sternite of leg-bearing segment 1 with pore-field; 49, 55 leg-bearing segments; body length 23 mm; chitin-lines of forcipular coxosternite incomplete. (Clypeus with ca. 12 setae; sternite of leg-bearing segment 1 without pore-field; (other features, already mentioned above)).

— I. savannus: pore-fields present from sternite of leg-bearing segment 2 to fourth sternite from rear end of the body; 55 leg-bearing segments; body length 16 mm. (Ventral pore-fields present from second to penultimate leg-bearing segment; (other features, already mentioned above)).

Ityphilus donatellae sp. nov. can be separated from the other Neotropical species of Ityphilus characterized by having the forcipular tarsungulum serrate, by using the key below.

Type material (hereby designated): BRAZIL: Amazonas: secondary upland forest (02º34’S, 60º06’W), M.O. de A. Ribeiro leg., 7 November 1990: holotype female, 43 leg-bearing segments, body length 11 mm (INPA); same locality and collector, 6 December 1990: paratype male, 41 leg-bearing segments, body length 8.5 mm (INPA); same locality and collector, 9 October 1990: paratype female, 43 leg-bearing segments, body length 11 mm (MLP).

Remarks: For details of morphological characters of I. donatellae sp. nov., see the "Redescription" of "Ityphilus calinus Chamberlin, 1957" given in Pereira et al. (2000:6-8, figs. 42-68), in which the present holotype female (cited as Specimen "A") and paratype male (cited as Specimen "B") are described and illustrated in detail. Nevertheless, the following complementary morphological data can be added here based on the original figures of those specimens. Supplementary precisions on external morphology (together with new illustrations) are incorporated from the paratype female (examined here).

Additional morphological information:

Holotype female: Antennae nearly contiguous at base (Fig. 2), curved at middle and truly geniculate, apically distinctly thickened, strongly clavate (Fig. 1). Ratio of width of a.a. XI (= widest antennomere of distal antennal half)/width of a.a. VI (= narrowest antennomere of basal antennal half), ca. 1.58: 1; ratio of length of a.a. XIV/length of a.a. XI to XIII taken together, ca. 1.25: 1; ratio length of a.a. XIV/length of a.a. XIII, ca. 4.0: 1. Length/width ratio of left a.a. I to XIV as follows: I (0.50: 1); II (0.60: 1); III (0.60: 1); IV (0.60: 1); V (0.66: 1); VI (0.48: 1); VII (0.44: 1); VIII (0.36: 1); IX (0.33: 1); X (0.27: 1); XI (0.25: 1); XII (0.22: 1); XIII (0.24: 1); XIV (0.93: 1).

Forcipular segment (Fig. 4): forcipular coxosternite with maximum width/length at the middle ratio, ca. 1.70: 1; forcipular telopodite with ratio of maximum length/maximum width of trochanteroprefemur, ca. 1.06: 1.

Ultimate leg-bearing segment (Figs. 5, 6): wider than the penultimate leg-bearing segment in the proportion, ca. 1.16: 1; length/width ratio of tergite 0.68: 1; length/width ratio of sternite, 0.85: 1. Ultimate legs: ratio length of telopodites/length of sternite ca. 2.02: 1; ratio width of trochanter/width of tarsus 2, ca. 3.4: 1.

Paratype male: Ultimate leg-bearing segment (Figs. 7, 8): wider than the penultimate leg-bearing segment in the proportion, ca. 1.35: 1; length/width ratio of tergite 0.88: 1; length/width ratio of sternite, 0.81: 1. Ultimate legs: ratio length of telopodites/length of sternite, ca. 2.43: 1; ratio width of trochanter/width of tarsus 2, ca. 3.0: 1.

Paratype female: Antennae: dorsal chaetotaxy of a.a. I-VIII represented by setae of different lengths, few in number and similar to those on the ventral side, setae on a.a. IX-XIV larger and much less numerous than those on ventral side (Fig. 9). Contour of appendages as in Figs. 10, 12.

Cephalic plate: surface with reticulation as in Fig. 13; ratio of maximum width of cephalic plate/maximum width of forcipular tergite, ca. 1.05: 1.

Forcipular segment: forcipular tergite a little wider than the tergite of the first leg-bearing segment (in the proportion ca. 1.04: 1). Tarsungula when closed wholly behind the anterior margin of the head (Fig. 14).

Tergites of leg-bearing segments: sulci not evident (apparently absent). Spermathecae (full of spermatozoa) located at level of the leg-bearing segments 38, 39, shape of posterior spermatheca as in Fig. 11: a.

Etymology: This species is dedicated to Dr. Donatella Foddai (Padova, Italy), who was a kind partner in previous studies on geophilomorph centipedes.

Type locality: BRAZIL: Amazonas: secondary upland forest (02º34’S, 60º06’W).

Known range: BRAZIL: Amazonas: secondary upland forest (02º34’S, 60º06’W); Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (02º55’S, 59º59’W).

Ityphilus crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994
(Figs. 15-17)

Ityphilus crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994:163, 164-166; Pereira et al., 1995:326, 327; Adis et al., 1996:168, 169; Pereira & Minelli, 1996:110; Foddai et al., 2000:153; 2002:473; 2004:276; Bonato et al., 2007:3; Pereira, 2010:659-660.

Type material examined: Holotype female, with 53 leg-bearing segments, body length 21 mm, from BRAZIL: Amazonas: Rio Tarumã Mirím, Igapó (BE), 4 August 1976, J. Adis legit. (INPA).

New material examined: BRAZIL: Amazonas: Manaus: INPA (secondary upland forest, unburned), Kempson soil extraction, 25 September 1985, J. Adis et al. leg.: 1 female (with the two spermathecae full of spermatozoa), 49 leg-bearing segments, body length 23 mm; 1 male with 47 leg-bearing segments, body length 15 mm (MLP). BRAZIL: Amazonas: secondary upland forest (02º34’S, 60º06’W), 3 January 1991, M.O. de A. Ribeiro leg.: 1 male (with tubula seminifera full of mature spermatozoa), 47 leg-bearing segments, body length 16 mm (MLP). Same locality and collector, 6 October 1990: 1 female (with the two spermathecae full of spermatozoa, and with mature ova), 49 leg-bearing segments, body length 22 mm; 6 December 1990: 1 male (with tubula seminifera full of mature spermatozoa), 47 leg-bearing segments, body length 15 mm; 7 November 1990: 1 female (with the two spermathecae full of spermatozoa), 49 leg-bearing segments, body length 16 mm; 1 juvenile (female?) with 1+1 coxal organs only, 49 leg-bearing segments, body length 7 mm (MLP). BRAZIL: Amazonas: Lago Janauarí, secondary upland forest (03º20’S, 60º17’W), pitfall traps, 29 December 1995, J. Adis et al. leg.: 1 female (with the two spermathecae full of spermatozoa), 49 leg-bearing segments, body length 15 mm (MLP).

Remarks: The localities of Manaus: INPA; secondary upland forest (02º34’S, 60º06’W); and Lago Janauarí (all in Brazil: Amazonas State), are new for the geographic distribution of I. crabilli.

Additional morphological information:

Female holotype: The following rectifying data can be given on the antennae: ventral and dorsal surface of a.a. II, V, IX and XIII (Figs. 15, 16) with very small specialized sensilla. On the ventral side, these sensilla are represented by two different types: a and b. Type a sensilla are very thin and not split apically (Fig. 15: a); type b sensilla, thicker than type a, hyaline, and having two very small apical branches (Fig. 15: b). Specialized sensilla on dorsal side represented by three different types: a and b, similar to a and b of ventral side (Fig. 16: a, b); and type c sensilla "spine-like" or "claviform" larger and much darker (ochreous) in color (Fig. 16: c). Number and distribution of specialized sensilla on a.a. II, V, IX and XIII, as in Table 2.

 

Remarks: The original description by Pereira et al. (1994), only mentions two types of specialized sensilla (hereby individualized as "type b" and "type c"). The original source of this nomenclature is Pereira et al. (1995).

Post-embryonic variation of coxal organs: the juvenile cited above, has 1+1 coxal organs in the coxopleura of the ultimate leg-bearing segment (Fig. 17); in contrast, mature specimens have 2+2 coxal organs.

Variation: all males recorded up to now have 47 leg-bearing segments, females with 47, 49, 51 or 53 leg-bearing segments.

Type locality: Brazil: Amazonas: Rio Tarumã Mirím.

Known range: BRAZIL: Amazonas: Tarumã Mirím River; Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve; Manaus: INPA; secondary upland forest (02º34’S, 60º06’W); Janauarí Lake.

Ityphilus demoraisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1995
(Figs. 18-25)

Ityphilus demoraisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1995:325, 327, 328; Pereira & Minelli, 1996:110; Adis et al., 1996:166, 168; Pereira et al., 2000:8; Foddai et al., 2000:153; 2002:473; 2004:276; Bonato et al., 2007:3; Pereira, 2010:660.

New material examined: BRAZIL: Amazonas: secondary upland forest (02º34’S, 60º06’W), 3 January 1991, M.O. de A. Ribeiro leg.: 1 male (Specimen "A") with 63 leg-bearing segments, body length 30 mm (MLP); same locality and collector, 28 August 1990: 1 male (Specimen "B") with 65 leg-bearing segments, body length 29 mm (MLP).

Remarks: The locality cited above, is new for the geographic distribution of this species.

The adult condition of the two specimens listed here is proved by the tubula seminifera full of mature spermatozoa.

The original description by Pereira et al. (1995) was based on females only (holotype, paratype, and a juvenile). Subsequently, no specimens have been reported for this species, thus the male remained unknown until now; the present new material allows the first description of this sex, giving a better understanding of the taxon.

Description

Male (Specimen A): Sixty-three leg-bearing segments, body length 30 mm, maximum body width 0.8 mm.

Features similar to those in the female, except for the shape and chaetotaxy of the ultimate leg-bearing segment and postpedal segments.

Ultimate leg-bearing segment: conspicuously wider than the penultimate leg-bearing segment, in the proportion ca. 1.63: 1; length/width ratio of tergite, 0.63: 1; length/width ratio of sternite: 0.75: 1. Shape and chaetotaxy of tergite and sternite as in Figs. 18, 19. Coxopleura with numerous setae on ventral and lateral surfaces, dorsal side with few setae placed near the lateral edges only (Figs. 18, 19). Coxal organs with shape and relative size as in Figs. 19, 20. Articles of ultimate legs strongly thickened, subconically narrowing from base to distal end (ratio of width of trochanter/width of tarsus 2, ca. 3.0: 1); ultimate legs relatively longer than those of the female, with ratio length of telopodites/length of sternite, 2.57: 1. Shape and chaetotaxy of ultimate legs as in Figs. 18, 19.

Postpedal segments: intermediate tergite with posterior margin strongly convex (Fig. 18), intermediate sternite and first genital sternite with posterior margin slightly concave (Figs. 19, 21). Gonopods apparently uniarticulate (suture between the presumptive basal and apical articles not evident), right gonopod with 12 setae on ventral side (Fig. 22). Penis apparently devoid of apical setae, shape as in Fig. 23.

Variation: the females recorded up to now have 67 or 69 leg-bearing segments; the males 63 or 65 leg-bearing segments.

The anterior and posterior coxal organs of the female holotype (Figs. 24, 25), and those of female paratype, are roughly similar in size; in contrast, in both males examined here the anterior coxal organs are smaller than the posterior (in the proportion shown in Figs. 19, 20). Because there is no doubt about the conspecificity of the present males with the holotype and paratype female, this difference could be interpreted as an intraspecific variation (or artifacts in the temporary microscope slides). More specimens are needed to clarify this issue.

Ecology: The two specimens herein reported were collected in a secondary forest, while the type material comes from a primary rainforest at the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, a 100 Km2 high biodiversity area belonging to INPA, located near the city of Manaus. (A description of its geology, soil characteristics and floristic composition is given by Gentry, 1990; Hopkins, 2005, 2007; Penny & Arias, 1982; and Ribeiro et al., 1999).

Type locality: Brazil: Amazonas: Reserva Florestal A. Ducke (02º55’S, 59º59’W).

Known range: BRAZIL: Amazonas: Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (02º55’S, 59º59’W); secondary upland forest (02º34’S, 60º06’W).

Ityphilus calinus Chamberlin, 1957
(Fig. 26)

Ityphilus calinus Chamberlin, 1957:25, 30; Pereira & Minelli, 1996:110; Foddai et al., 2000:153; Adis et al., 2002:18; Foddai et al., 2002:473; 2004:276; Bonato et al., 2007:3; Pereira, 2010:663.

Diagnosis: An Ityphilus species characterized by having a low number of leg-bearing segments (43). Among the other Neotropical members of the genus, it only shares the same trait with I. donatellae sp. nov.; I. calinus can be principally differentiated from the latter by means of the following selected traits (those for I. donatellae are given in parentheses): "Antennae curved at middle but not truly geniculate", Fig. 26 (curved at middle, truly geniculate, Figs. 1, 9, 10, 12); antennae distally slightly thickened, Fig. 26 (antennae distally strongly clavate, Figs. 1, 9, 10, 12); a.a. XIV longer than wide, in the proportion ca. 1.49: 1 (a.a. XIV wider than long, in the proportion ca. 0.93: 1). Other features differentiating both species, as in Table 1.

Remarks: This species was insufficiently described by Chamberlin (1957) on the basis of a single specimen (male holotype). The original description does not state whether the forcipular tarsungulum is serrate or smooth, lacks information on many other important characters of specific value, and only includes a single figure (illustrating the anterior end of the body), which is herein reproduced as Fig. 26. However, a few approximate ratios related to antennal articles and cephalic plate (included here in Table 1 as indicative traits for this species), are tentatively deduced from this original figure.

Pereira et al. (2000) stated that the original description of I. calinus is entirely devoid of figures. However that statement was an inadvertent mistake, since "fig. 7" of Chamberlin (on page 23 of his paper) does correspond to this taxon.

The type locality given by this author may be more appropriately cited as follows: Colombia: Valle del Cauca Department: 13 mi. W. of Santiago de Cali. (This town is located in the geographic valley of the Cauca River, on the west bank of the water course, about 1000 m a.s.l., between the Central Cordillera and the Occidental Cordillera of the Andes (very close to the latter)). Chamberlin does not give the altitude a.s.l. of the collecting site (thirteen miles West of the mentioned city as stated above, (Fig. 35)).

The inclusion of Brazil in the geographic distribution of I. calinus by Adis et al. (2002); Foddai et al. (2000, 2002, 2004); Pereira et al. (2000); and Bonato et al. (2007) is not valid, because it was based on the specimens herein identified as I. donatellae sp. nov.

Type locality: "Colombia: 13 mi. W. of Cali, Valle".

Known range: Only known from the type locality.

Key to the Neotropical species of Ityphilus with forcipular tarsungulum serrate

1. Internal edge of forcipular tarsungulum entirely serrate (Fig. 29: a); internal side of a.a. I with strong stout setae (Fig. 28: a); coxosternite of second maxillae with a sulcus along the sagittal plane.............................................................................I. sensibilis Pereira, Foddai & Minelli, 2000

– Internal edge of forcipular tarsungulum partially serrate; internal side of a.a. I without strong stout setae; coxosternite of second maxillae without a sulcus along the sagittal plane...................................................................................................................................2

2. 113 leg-bearing segments (female), body length 93 mm.........................................................................................................I. grandis (Turk, 1955)

– 41 to 95 leg-bearing segments, body length 8.5 to 83 mm..........................................................3

3. 95 leg-bearing segments (female); body length 83 mm; sternites of posterior third of the body without pore-fields; sternite of the ultimate leg-bearing segment with 1+1 ovoid prominences on the posterior half (Fig. 31: a).........................................................I. mauriesi Demange & Pereira, 1985

– 41 to 71 leg-bearing segments; body length 8.5 to 57 mm; sternites of posterior third of the body with pore-fields............................................................................................................................4

4. Ventral pore-fields of anterior half of the body undivided (Fig. 32), those of the posterior half divided in two subsymetrical areas (Figs. 33, 34)............................................I. krausi Pereira & Minelli, 1996

– All pore-fields undivided.......................................................................................................5

5. 41 or 43 leg-bearing segments, body length 8.5 to 11 mm..........................................................................................................I. donatellae sp. nov.

– 47 to 71 leg-bearing segments, body length 15 to 57 mm...........................................................6

6. Sternite of leg-bearing segment 1 with pore-field.....................................................................7

– Sternite of leg-bearing segment 1 without pore-field..................................................................8

7. Male with 63, 65 leg-bearing segments, female with 67, 69 leg-bearing segments; body length 30-32 mm; antennae distally moderately clavate; chitin-lines of forcipular coxosternite complete....................................................................I. demoraisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1995

– 49, 55 leg-bearing segments; body length 23 mm; antennae distally strongly clavate; chitin-lines of forcipular coxosternite incomplete......................................................I. guianensis Chamberlin, 1921

8. Sternite of leg-bearing segment 2 without a well defined pore-field (only an isolated pore can be present); anterior edge of forcipular coxosternite deeply notched at middle; chitin-lines of forcipular coxosternite complete; ratio of maximum length/maximum width of forcipular trochanteroprefemur ca. 1.32: 1............................................................................I. saucius Pereira, Foddai & Minelli, 2000

– Sternite of leg-bearing segment 2 with a well defined pore-field; anterior edge of forcipular coxosternite not deeply notched at middle; chitin-lines of forcipular coxosternite incomplete; ratio of maximum length/maximum width of forcipular trochanteroprefemur ca. 1.10-1.17: 1........................................................................................................................................9

9. Male with 47, female with 47, 49, 51, 53 leg-bearing segments.........................................................................I. crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994

– With 61 to 71 leg-bearing segments......................................................................................10

10. 61 (male), 63 (male, female?) leg-bearing segments; body length 17-18 mm; first maxillae without lappets; ventral pore-fields extending to antepenultimate leg-bearing segment.........................................................................................I. perrieri (Brölemann, 1909)

– 67 (male), 71 (female) leg-bearing segments; body length: 40 mm (male), 57 mm (female); first maxillary lappets present on coxosternite and telopodites; ventral pore-fields extending to penultimate leg-bearing segment (Fig. 30: a)...............................................................I. betschi Pereira, 2010

 

DISCUSSION

As is the case for Ityphilus donatellae sp. nov. (just 8.5 to 11 mm long), diverse other examples of reduced body size exist within the order Geophilomorpha (see Foddai et al., 2003; Minelli et al., 2000; Pereira 2009, 2011). Besides the Ballophilidae, this is known to occur in some genera of the Geophilidae, Linotaeniidae, Schendylidae, Mecistocephalidae, and Macronicophilidae (within Macronicophilus Silvestri, 1909, where M. abbreviatus Pereira, Foddai & Minelli, 2000, with 39 or 41 leg-bearing segments is 16 mm long).

The key proposed above will enable the identification of the eleven Neotropical species of Ityphilus known to have the forcipular tarsungulum serrate (including I. donatellae sp. nov. which shares this feature). Among the eight remaining Neotropical species in the genus, five have a smooth forcipular tarsungulum (so they are not covered in this key). As for the other three taxa (I. calinus Chamberlin, 1957 (from Colombia); I. savannus Chamberlin, 1943 (from Mexico) and I. ceibanus Chamberlin, 1922 (from Honduras)), the original descriptions do not state whether the forcipular tarsungulum is serrate or smooth, thus their insertion in the key would be conditional (and uncertain). However, in the case of these species actually having a serrate tarsungulum, they could be differentiated from those included in the latter as follows:

— I. calinus: with 43 leg-bearing segments, can be separated from I. donatellae sp. nov. (with 41, 43 leg-bearing segments) by means of the selected traits shown in Table 1.

— I. savannus: with greatly thickened antennae, and 55 leg-bearing segments, may be distinguished from I. guianensis (the single species in the key sharing these traits) by its peculiar ventral pore-field series, which extends from the second sternite to fourth sternite from rear end of the body (in I. guianensis the ventral pore-field series is present from the first to penultimate sternite).

— I. ceibanus: the incomplete trunk of the single type specimen has 69 leg-bearing segments. It could be differentiated from the three species in the key that have a similar trait (i.e., I. betschi, I. demoraisi and I. saucius) by its strongly clavate antennae (Fig. 27) (these appendages are slightly thickened in I. betschi and moderately clavate in I. demoraisi and I. saucius). Anyway, Chamberlin (1922) affirms in his original description "the total number of pairs of legs is not ascertainable because the caudal end of the type is missing". In consequence, the kind and number of coxal organs and number of articles of the ultimate legs (and other characters of generic value) are unknown for the species; for this reason, it is even doubtful if it really belongs to Ityphilus.

Five species of the genus (in addition to that proposed above) are recorded from Brazilian Amazonia: I. crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994; I. demoraisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1995; I. donatellae sp. nov.; I. guianensis Chamberlin, 1921; I. saucius Pereira, Foddai and Minelli, 2000; and I. sensibilis Pereira, Foddai & Minelli, 2000. In addition to these taxa, twenty five further species of geophilomorph centipedes are known to occur in this region: one species in the genus Taeniolinum Pocock, 1893 (Ballophilidae); two in Hyphydrophilus Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994, six in Ribautia Brölemann, 1909, and one in Schizonampa Chamberlin, 1914 (Geophilidae); two in Macronicophilus Silvestri, 1909 (Macronicophilidae); one in Mecistocephalus (Mecistocephalidae); one in Notiphilides Latzel, 1880, and two in Orphnaeus Meinert, 1870 (Oryidae); three in Pectiniunguis Bollman, 1889, and six in Schendylops Cook, 1899 (Schendylidae).

At the specific level, the geophilomorphs from Brazilian Amazonia show a high degree of endemicity; in contrast, at generic level only one genus (Hyphydrophilus) is endemic to this region (Foddai et al., 2004). The majority of the recorded species have been collected in some biotopes in the vicinity of Manaus (Amazonas State, Central Amazon), but nothing is known about members of the order that most probably exist in large areas never explored, demonstrating that the current knowledge of this group in the Neotropics (and in this immense Brazilian region in particular) is still very scanty and fragmentary. The Brazilian Amazon region as a whole consists of over 4,000,000 km2 of tropical rain forest, representing one of the largest and most diverse contiguous ecosystems in the world (Braswell et al., 2003). According to da Silva et al. (2005), our knowledge of the diversity, phylogeny and distribution of organisms in Amazonia is still in its infancy. There are large areas not yet visited by specialists (Nelson et al., 1990; Oren & Albuquerque, 1991), e.g., more than seventy percent of the total surface of the Amazon basin remains unexplored for the arachnid order Opiliones (Tourinho & Pérez González, 2006). This region has been less investigated than the southeastern and southern regions of Brazil, thus its faunistic diversity is less known (and underestimated). Therefore it is not surprising that several new taxa, including new species of mammals, were discovered lately (van Roosmalen et al. 1998, 2000, 2002; van Roosmalen & van Roosmalen, 2003; Voss & da Silva 2001).

Amazonian biodiversity is principally threatened by deforestation (Braswell et al., 2003; Fearnside, 2003; Houghton et al., 2000; Myers, 1992; Potter et al., 2001). We do not know the susceptibility of geophilomorph centipedes to habitat fragmentation, agriculture, environmental climatic changes, etc. Several new species probably exist in areas never sampled in a landscape under increasing pressure from human activities; many of them could probably disappear before we get to know them.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Appropriate conditions to conduct this research are due to a permanent full time position as a researcher at CONICET (National Council for Scientific and Technological Research, Argentina) that this author has held since 1983. Bibliographic assistance was given by the Laboratoire de Zoologie (Arthropodes) Muséum national d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Anonymous referees contributed with careful reviews which helped to improve the final version of the manuscript. Carlos José Einicker Lamas (Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo) as well as Airton de Almeida Cruz (of the same institution) kindly assisted me during all steps of the review and publication process. Hernán Lucas Pereira and José Luis Pereira (La Plata) prepared the electronic versions of the figures.

 

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Aceito em: 27.07.2012
Publicado em: 28.09.2012

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