SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.57 issue1 author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia

Print version ISSN 0031-1049On-line version ISSN 1807-0205

Pap. Avulsos Zool. vol.57 no.1 São Paulo  2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.11606/0031-1049.2017.57.01 

Articles

EXTINCTION RISK OR LACK OF SAMPLING IN A THREATENED SPECIES: GENETIC STRUCTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUITABILITY OF THE NEOTROPICAL FROG PRISTIMANTIS PENELOPUS (ANURA: CRAUGASTORIDAE)

ADRIANA RESTREPO1 

JULIAN A. VELASCO2 

JUAN M. DAZA3 

1.Grupo Herpetológico de Antioquia, Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 67 # 53-108, A.A. 1226, Medellín, Colombia. E-mail: restrepoadriana78@gmail.com.

2.Museo de Zoología Alfonso L. Herrera, Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico. E-mail: juvelas@gmail.com.

3.Grupo Herpetológico de Antioquia, Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 67 # 53-108, A.A. 1226, Medellín, Colombia. Corresponding author. E-mail: jumadaza@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

IUCN Red Lists have been a valuable tool to prioritize conservation plans in endemic neotropical frogs. However, many areas in this region are poorly known in terms of their diversity and endemism. Based on examined museum specimens of the threatened species Pristimantis penelopus we revised its geographic distribution and determined the habitat suitability using niche modeling techniques. Using a mitochondrial fragment of COI gene, we determine the phylogenetic position and the extent of the genetic variation across its distribution in Colombia. We present the first records of P. penelopus for the Cordillera Oriental, the western versant of Cordillera Occidental and the northern portion of the Cauca river basin. Based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis, Pristimantis penelopus belongs to the P. ridens series sensu (Padial et al., 2014). The mean of intraspecific genetic variation is 2.1% and the variation among population ranges between 2.3 and 3.5%. The genetic distance between the western populations and the Magdalena Valley populations suggests a potential phylogeographic break in northwestern Antioquia. We expand the realized distribution by 258 kilometers north, 200 km east and 223 km northwest. Based on our results and according to the IUCN criteria we propose a new category for the species and highlight the need to increase the surveys in poorly known regions to better understand the geographic distribution and conservation status of listed species.

KEY-WORDS: Colombia; IUCN Red List; Niche modeling; Phylogeography; Terrarana

RESUMEN

Las listas rojas de la IUCN han sido una herramienta fundamental para priorizar planes de conservación de ranas endémicas neotropicales. Sin embargo, muchas áreas en esta región han sido poco estudiadas y el endemismo puede ser un artificio del muestreo. A partir de especímenes de museo de la especie amenazada Pristimantis penelopus revisamos su distribución geográfica y determinamos su hábitat potencial utilizando técnicas de modelo de nicho. A partir de un fragmento del gen mitocondrial COI, determinamos la posición filogenética de la especie y la magnitud de su variación genética a lo largo de su distribución en Colombia Presentamos los primeros registros de P. penelopus en la Cordillera Oriental de los Andes, en la vertiente occidental de la Cordillera Occidental y en el norte de la cuenca del río Cauca. Teniendo en cuenta los análisis filogenéticos moleculares, Pristimantis penelopus pertenece al grupo P. ridens sensu (Padial et al., 2014). La variación genética intraespecífica promedio fue de 2.1% y la variación entre poblaciones estuvo entre 2.3 y 3.5%. La distancia genética entre las poblaciones de la Cordillera Occidental y las poblaciones del Valle del Magdalena sugieren la presencia de un quiebre filogeográfico en el noroccidente de Antioquia. Expandimos la distribución realizada de P. penelopus 258 kilómetros al norte, 200 km al este y 223 km al noroccidente. Teniendo en cuenta estos resultados y los criterios propuestos por la IUCN proponemos una nueva categoría de amenaza para la especie y resaltamos la necesidad de incrementar los muestreo en regions geográficas poco conocidas para comprender mejor la distribución geográfica y el estado de conservación de las especies incluidas en las Listas Rojas.

Palabras-Clave: Colombia; Listas Rojas de la IUCN; Modelos de Nicho; Filogeografía; Terrarana

INTRODUCTION

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species highlights which species are at the greatest risk of extinction and seeks to promote their conservation (Collar, 1996; Rodríguez et al., 2006). To determine the conservation status of a species, IUCN uses objective criteria and the expert opinion regarding population declines, geographic range (i.e., extent of occurrence and area of occupancy), number of mature individuals, population size and extinction probability based on quantitative analyses (IUCN, 2001).

In the Neotropical region, evidence about population trends and species distribution of amphibians is scant as many species are only known from few individuals (i.e., the type series). Many regions have not been adequately sampled and information on the distribution range and area of occupancy is anecdotal and fragmented. This limited information hampers the appropriate assessment of the species conservation status. As a consequence, conservation efforts would be incorrectly implemented for species with an equivocal conservation status. Given the scarce information regarding population trends in neotropical amphibians, species description and occurrence records are the most important sources of information for species conservation assessments.

The frog genus Pristimantis Jiménez de la Espada, 1870, a very species-rich lineage with more than 470 described species, is distributed throughout southern Central America and northern South America (Padial et al., 2014). Currently, 162 species are listed in one of the three IUCN threat categories and most of them under the B criterion (reduced extent of presence or area of occupancy; IUCN, 2016). All listed Pristimantis have restricted geographic distribution and face some habitat loss across their range. As a case, Pristimantis penelopus (Lynch & Rueda-Almonacid, 1999) is endemic to Colombia and is listed by IUCN as Vulnerable (VU B1ab (iii)) because its extent of occurrence is less than 20,000 km², it is known from fewer than ten locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat on the Cordillera Central of the Colombian Andes (Castro et al., 2004).

Here, we evaluate the extent of occurrence of Pristimantis penelopus (Lynch & Rueda-Almonacid, 1999) based on recent collecting efforts in northwestern Colombia. Based on this new information in addition to genetic analysis and ecological niche modeling, we reassess its conservation category according to the IUCN Red List criteria. Although, new Pristimantis species are described every year, we show that an extensive geographic sampling and an integrative approach (e.g., environmental and genetic) will help to reassess the conservation status of many other threatened species.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Specimen records

We collated records for P. penelopus from the GBIF database (www.gbif.org) from three biological collections: Instituto de Ciencias Naturales (ICN), Instituto Alexander von Humboldt (IAvH), and Museo de Herpetología Universidad de Antioquia (MHUA). Because records from the MHUA collection represent 73% out of all records for this species, we checked all specimens to corroborate taxonomic identity and we obtained 318 records for P. penelopus. Twenty-two remaining records are deposited at IAvH (17 records) and ICN (five records). In total, 316 confirmed records were obtained and mapped (Fig. 1).

Figure 1 Geographic sampling of Pristimantis penelopus. Colored circles indicate sequenced specimens. Different colors represent the populations used in the genetic analysis (see Figure 2 for color codes). 

Laboratory procedures

Samples of 37 individuals from three species: Pristimantis penelopus, Pristimantis erythropleura (Boulenger, 1896), and Pristimantis viejas (Lynch & Rueda-Almonacid, 1999) were sequenced. Samples of P. penelopus come from 15 localities across its range (Fig. 1). Total genomic DNA was extracted from tissue samples (muscle) using the Qiagen DNeasy kit (QIAGEN). A fragment of the mitochondrial genome corresponding to the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) was amplified via PCR using the primers dgLCO-dgHCO (Meyer, 2003). All PCR products were sequenced at the Macrogen sequencing facility (www.macrogen.com). Raw sequence chromatographs were edited using Geneious 8.1.4 (Kearse et al., 2012) and aligned with the program MUSCLE using default parameters (Edgar, 2004). All sequences generated in this study were deposited in GenBank (Supplementary Material).

Phylogenetic analysis

We combined previously published COI sequences with the new sequences generated for this study to create a matrix with a total of 109 terminals (Supplementary Material). (Pinto-Sánchez et al., 2014) and later (Padial et al., 2014) incorrectly included in their phylogenetic analyses the voucher AJC1344 (MHUAA48119) as Pristimantis paisa. However, after specimen examination and a molecular analysis, we unambiguously identified this specimen as Pristimantis penelopus. We used their phylogenetic hypotheses to determine the taxon sampling for our genetic analysis. We included available intraspecific sampling for the species most closely related to P. penelopus: P. erythropleura, P. cruentus (Peters, 1873), P. latidiscus (Boulenger, 1898), and P. museosus (Ibáñez et al., 1994). This group represents the P. ridens series sensu (Padial et al., 2014). Based on (Pinto-Sánchez et al., 2014) and our preliminary analyses with the entire genus, we used Pristimantis viejas as the outgroup. We simultaneously inferred the best model of evolution and the Maximum Likelihood tree using the program IQ-TREE (Nguyen et al., 2015). Nodal support was estimated using the ultrafast bootstrap implemented in IQ-TREE (Minh et al., 2013). In addition, we inferred a Bayesian phylogenetic tree using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method implemented in the program BEAST 1.8.3 (Drummond et al., 2012). We implemented the GTR+G+I model of evolution for the entire dataset as suggested by IQ-TREE. We initiated two independent runs from a starting random tree for 10 million generations sampling every 1,000 generations. On each run, the first two million generations were discarded as burn-in and the remaining samples were combined. Nodal support as Bayesian posterior probabilities were annotated on the maximum clade credibility tree.

Population genetic analysis

A haplotype network of P. penelopus samples was obtained using the median joining method (Bandelt et al., 1999) implemented in the program PopART (Leigh, 2016). In PopART, we implemented an AMOVA test (Excoffier et al., 1992) to stablish the molecular variation among geographic region, among localities and within localities. Uncorrected genetic distances among populations and within P. penelopus were estimated in Mega (Kumar et al., 2016). The correlation between geographic and genetic distances was determined using a Mantel test with randomization, which tests for significance of a regression using a randomized permutation procedure to account for the potential non-independence among samples (Wang, 2013). This method was implemented in zt with 10,000 permutations (Bonnet & de Peer, 2002).

Environmental niche modeling

We compiled occurrence records for P. penelopus as we mentioned before and only used for niche modeling those records corroborated by us using morphological and genetic data (53 unique locality records, Table 1). We buffered (~ 225 km of radius) each occurrence points to delimitate the background area to calibrate our niche model. We generated potential geographical distributions for this species using several algorithms (e.g., GAM, GLM, Maxent, Mars, SVM) implemented in the sdm R package (Naimi & Aráujo, 2016) using 10 replicates of subsampling splitting occurrence data in 70% for training and 30% for testing. We used only 11 of 19 bioclimatic variables which were the least correlated between them (bio1, bio2, bio3, bio4, bio8, bio9, bio12, bio15, bio16, bio17, bio19). The best model was selected as the one that maximizes validation metrics of both: Area under the curve (AUC) and the True Skill Statistics (TSS) (Allouche et al., 2006). The best model was one generated by Maxent and we reclassified this to a binary prediction (i.e., presence-absence) using the minimum training presence threshold. We calculated the potential presence area (km²) using ArcMap 10.2 (ESRI, 2011).

Table 1 Number of individuals, haplotypes and localities by geographic region of Pristimantis penelopus. 

# individuals # localities # haplotypes
Central 19 7 9
Western 5 3 4
Northern 3 1 2
Eastern 6 3 2
Cauca 1 1 1

RESULTS

The aligned matrix included 688 sites. Phylogenetic relationships within the P. ridens series is in agreement with previous studies (Padial et al., 2014; Pinto-Sánchez et al., 2014). Pristimantis penelopus is recovered as monophyletic and its sister species is P. erythropleura (Fig. 2). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian trees show a phylogeographic structure in P. penelopus where the regions west of Cordillera Occidental, Bolivar, Santander and Antioquia represent different clades. However, two haplotypes from Antioquia are more related to Santander and Bolivar respectively (Fig. 2).

Figure 2 (Left) Maximum clade credibility tree depicting the phylogenetic position of Pristimantis penelopus within the P. ridens series. Numbers on nodes indicate posterior probabilities. Numbers below nodes represent nodal support using the ultrafast bootstrap (see methods). Asterisks indicate nodal support above 95% in both Bayesian and ML methods. (Right) Haplotype network based on 460 bp of the COI region. Numbers of mutational steps are shown on the lines connecting haplotypes. Colors refer to geographic locations shown in Figure 1

For the intraspecific variation analyses we used a matrix with 460 base pairs of COI obtained from 34 individuals. A total of 42 variable nucleotide sites were found with no insertions or deletions and 18 different haplotypes were identified. All haplotypes were restricted to a single geographic region and we did not find dominant haplotypes. The median-joining network showed a pattern with phylogeographic structure in accordance with the phylogenetic tree (Fig. 2). The AMOVA results for the five geographic regions estimated that 64.7% of the genetic variation occurred among geographic regions, 33.8% among localities and 1.6% within populations. The genetic variation we found follows an isolation by distance pattern (IBD; r = 0.77, P < 0.0001). The mean genetic distance between geographic regions ranged from 2.3% and 3.5% (Table 2).

Table 2 Uncorrected genetic distances among Pristimantis penelopus populations based on a 688 bp fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI. Numbers on the diagonal represent the intraspecific variation. 

Central Eastern Northern Western Cauca
Central (0.008)
Eastern 0.023 (0.001)
Northern 0.024 0.023 (0.001)
Western 0.034 0.035 0.033 (0.009)
Cauca 0.028 0.031 0.031 0.025 (-)

The potential geographic distribution of Pristimantis penelopus encompass the central and northern Andes in Colombian and southern Venezuela (Fig. 4). Its distribution area estimated from the environmental niche model is ~ 191535 km². The model has a relative good performance (AUC = 0.93; TSS = 0.77).

Figure 3 Phenotypic variation of Pristimantis penelopus across its distribution. Localitites are shown in Appendix 1. 

Figure 4 Potential distribution of Pristimantis penelopus based on ecological niche modeling (red). Yellow dots represents occurrence localities used to calibrate the model. See main text for details. 

DISCUSSION

Piristimantis penelopus distribution has been restricted to the sub-Andean forests of the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Central in Antioquia and Caldas Departments (Lynch & Rueda-Almonacid, 1999; Bernal & Lynch, 2008) at elevations between 1,180 to 1,500 m. Several authors (Castro et al., 2004; Stuart et al., 2008; Llano-Mejía et al., 2010) mentioned the presence of P. penelopus in Tolima department but no voucher specimens support its presence. Combining specimen examination, genetic analysis, and niche modeling, we show that Pristimantis penelopus is distributed along the eastern flank of the Cordillera Central in Caldas and Antioquia, the western flank of the Cordillera Oriental in Santander, north of Serranía San Lucas in Bolívar, and the western flank of the Cordillera Central in Antioquia. Our findings expand the known distribution 258 kilometers north, 200 km east and 223 km northwest relative to the closest edge in the previously known distribution range for the species (Fig. 4). Altitudinal distribution is also extended as the original range changed from 1,180-1,500 m to 94-1,720 m.

We present molecular evidence that allows us to clarify the phylogenetic position of Pristimantis penelopus, the interpopulation genetic variation, and the distribution range. Phylogenetic relationships within Pristimantis are still incompletely understood because of the lack of adequate taxon sampling and the high levels of cryptic diversity and taxonomic complexity in this highly diverse clade (Fig. 3; Rivera-Correa & Daza, 2016). Although we used only a fragment of the mitochondrial genome to determine the phylogenetic position of P. penelopus, our results are in agree with the more extensive sampling of taxa and genes in a large Pristimantis phylogeny (i.e.,Pinto-Sánchez et al. 2014). The sister species to P. penelopus is P. erythropleura (Boulenger, 1896). This later species is distributed mainly on the western flank of the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia at elevations from 1,200-2,600 m (Frost, 2016). The genetic variation within Pristimantis species in the P. ridens group are fairly similar (Fig. 2).

The presence of a distinct clade in the lowlands of the western flank on the Cordillera Occidental suggest that a potential phylogeographic break might occur between the Chocó and the Magdalena lowlands, likely due to a conspicuous geographical/ecological barrier hard to delimitate. In some cases, this putative break would result in sister species on both sides of the barrier (e.g., Allobates talamancae and Allobates niputidea, Agalychnis callidryas and Agalychnis terranova). In contrast, western and eastern populations of Pristimantis penelopus correspond to the same species as the observed intraspecific variation is similar to the one found in other Pristimantis species (Crawford et al., 2010; García-R. et al., 2012; Fig. 2). Although we do not have quantitative measures of morphological variation across this break, specimen examination also indicates that populations from both sides represent one single species. More sampling effort in the northern cordilleras Occidental and Central and the Cauca canyon will illuminate the presence and location of this hypothetical phylogeographic break and its role in species divergence.

Pristimantis penelopus is currently categorized as a Vulnerable species (VU B1ab (iii)). Before our study, fewer than ten localities are known for the species and the extent of occurrence (EOO) was less than 20,000 km². In addition, the species has been considered to be rare and restricted to mature forest (Castro et al., 2004). The continued decline in the extent and quality of its habitat across its range was considered an indirect evidence of population decline. Our results show that P. penelopus occurs in at least 26 localities and the EOO is more than seven times larger than originally considered. The species has been found in secondary forests, and all specimens deposited in the MHUA collection provide indirect evidence that the species is not rare. Therefore, based on our results, we suggest that this species is assigned to the Least Concern category according to IUCN guidelines.

CONCLUSION

Our findings highlight the need for thorough sampling in poorly studied regions in the Neotropics. Taxonomic studies using multiple lines of evidence (morphology, genetics and environmental suitability) are necessary to uncover geographic structure and distributional ranges of poorly known amphibians. Lastly, conservation biology should not only deal with enhancing the persistence of local and rare populations but also by exploring undersampled areas that might lead to discover new populations and in turn will decrease the extinction risks of the species across its distribution.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The study was funded by ISAGEN and the Grupo Herpetológico de Antioquia under contract 47/574. We thank E. Alzate, F. Grisales and J.P. Hurtado for providing photographs. C. Muñoz and J. Fang helped in the genetic data generation. We thank students and researchers associated to the MHUA who after the years have collected the largest voucher dataset for this species.

REFERENCES

ALLOUCHE, O.; TSOAR, A. & KADMON, R. 2006. Assessing the accuracy of species distribution models: Prevalence, kappa and the true skill statistic (TSS). Journal of Applied Ecology, 43:1223-1232. DOI. [ Links ]

BANDELT, H.; FORSTER, P. & RÖHL, A. 1999. Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 16:37-48. [ Links ]

BERNAL, M.H. & LYNCH, J.D. 2008. Review and analysis of altitudinal distribution of the Andean anurans in Colombia. Zootaxa, 1826:1-25. DOI. [ Links ]

BONNET, E. & VAN DE PEER, Y. 2002. Zt: A software tool for simple and partial Mantel tests. Journal of Statistical Software, 7:1-12. DOI. [ Links ]

BOULENGER, G.A. 1896. Descriptions of new reptiles and batrachians from Colombia. Annals and Magazine of Natural History Series, 6(17):16-21. [ Links ]

BOULENGER, G.A. 1898. An account of the reptiles and batrachians collected by Mr. W.F.H. Rosenberg in Western Ecuador. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1898:107-126. [ Links ]

CASTRO, F.; HERRERA, M.I. & LYNCH, J.D. 2004. Pristimantis penelopus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004. Available from Available from www.iucnredlist.org/details/56841/0 . Accessed in: 10/2016. [ Links ]

COLLAR, N.J. 1996. The reasons for Red Data Books. Oryx, 30:121-130. DOI. [ Links ]

CRAWFORD, A.J.; LIPS, K.R. & BERMINGHAM, E. 2010. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107:13777-13782. [ Links ]

DRUMMOND, A.J.; SUCHARD, M.A.; XIE, D. & RAMBAUT, A. 2012. Bayesian phylogenetics with BEAUti and the BEAST 1.7 Molecular Biology and Evolution, 29:1969-1973. DOI. [ Links ]

EDGAR, R.C. 2004. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research, 32:1792-1797. DOI. [ Links ]

ESRI. 2011. ArcGIS Desktop: Release 10. Available from Environmental Systems Research Institute. Redlands, USA. [ Links ]

EXCOFFIER, L.; SMOUSE, P.E. & QUATTRO, J.M. 1992. Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics, 131:479-491. [ Links ]

FROST, D.R. 2016. Amphibian species of the world: an online reference. Version 6.0. (Junuary 2017) Available from http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. New York, American Museum of Natural History. [ Links ]

GARCÍA-R., J.C.; CRAWFORD, A.J.; MENDOZA, Á.M.; OSPINA, O.; CARDENAS, H. & CASTRO, F. 2012. Comparative phylogeography of direct-developing frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae: Pristimantis) in the southern Andes of Colombia. PLoS One, 7:e46077. [ Links ]

IBÁÑEZ, R.; JARAMILLO, C.A. & AROSEMENA, F.A. 1994. A new species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Panamá. Amphibia-Reptilia, 15:337-341. DOI. [ Links ]

IUCN. 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Gland and Cambridge, IUCN Species Survival Commission. [ Links ]

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. (January 2017). Available from www.iucnredlist.org. [ Links ]

KEARSE, M.; MOIR, R.; WILSON, A.; STONES-HAVAS, S.; CHEUNG, M.; STURROCK, S.; BUXTON, S.; COOPER, A.; MARKOWITZ, S.; DURAN, C.; THIERER, T.; ASHTON, B.; MEINTJES, P. & DRUMMOND, A. 2012. Geneious Basic: An integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics, 28:1647-1649. DOI. [ Links ]

KUMAR, S.; STECHER, G. & TAMURA, K. 2016. MEGA7: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis. Version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33(7):1870-1874. [ Links ]

LEIGH, J. 2016. PopArt Version 1.7. Available from http://popart.otago.ac.nz. [ Links ]

LLANO-MEJÍA, J.; CORTÉS-GÓMEZ, A.M. & CASTRO-HERRERA, F. 2010. Lista de anfibios y reptiles del departamento del Tolima, Colombia. Biota Colombiana, 11:89-106. [ Links ]

LYNCH, J.D. & RUEDA-ALMONACID, J.V. 1999. New species of frogs from low and moderate elevations from the Caldas transect of the eastern flank of the Cordillera Central. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 23:307-314. [ Links ]

MEYER, C.P. 2003. Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the tropics. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 79:401-459. DOI. [ Links ]

MINH, B.Q.; NGUYEN, M.A.T. & VON HAESELER, A. 2013. Ultrafast approximation for phylogenetic bootstrap. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30:1188-1195. [ Links ]

NAIMI, B. & ARAÚJO, M. 2016. Sdm: a reproducible and extensible R platform for species distribution modeling. Ecography, 39:368-375. [ Links ]

NGUYEN, L.T.; SCHMIDT, H.A.; VON HAESELER, A. & MINH, B.Q. 2015. IQ-TREE: A fast and effective stochastic algorithm for estimating maximum likelihood phylogenies. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 32:268-274. DOI. [ Links ]

PADIAL, J.M.; GRANT, T. & FROST, D. 2014. Molecular systematics of terraranas (Anura: Brachycephaloidea) with an assessment of the effects of alignment and optimality criteria. Zootaxa, 3825:1-132. DOI. [ Links ]

PETERS, W.C.H. 1873. Über eine neue Schildrötenart, Cinosternon Effeldtii und einige andere neue oder weniger bekannte Amphibien. Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussische Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1873:603-618. [ Links ]

PINTO-SÁNCHEZ, N.R.; CRAWFORD, A.J. & WIENS, J.J. 2014. Using historical biogeography to test for community saturation. Ecology Letters, 17:1077-1085. DOI. [ Links ]

RIVERA-CORREA, M. & DAZA, J.M. 2016. Molecular phylogenetics of the Pristimanstis lacrimosus species group (Anura: Craugastoridae) with the description of a new species from Colombia. Acta Herpetologica, 11:31-45. DOI. [ Links ]

RODRÍGUEZ, A.S.; PILGRIM, J.D.; LAMOREUX, J.F.; HOFFMANN, M. & BROOKS, T.M. 2006. The value of the IUCN Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21:71-76. DOI. [ Links ]

STUART, S.N.; HOFFMANN, M.; CHANSON, J.; COX, N.; BERRIDGE, R.; RAMANI, P. & YOUNG, B. 2008. Threatened Amphibians of the World. Barcelona, Lynx Editions. 151p. [ Links ]

WANG, I.J. 2013. Examining the full effects of landscape heterogeneity on spatial genetic variation: A multiple matrix regression approach for quantifying geographic and ecological isolation. Evolution, 67:3403-3411. DOI. [ Links ]

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL

Voucher information of the Pristimantis penelopus specimens used in this study.

VOUCHER DEPARTMENT MUNICIPALITY LATITUDE LONGITUDE ALTITUDE
MHUAA 07037 Antioquia Alejandria 6.36699 -75.02892 1053
MHUAA 07126 Antioquia Alejandria 6.36804 -75.02556 1198
MHUAA 07128 Antioquia Alejandria 6.36699 -75.02892 1282
MHUAA 07132 Antioquia Alejandria 6.36699 -75.02892 1282
MHUAA 07422 Antioquia Alejandria 6.36930 -75.02520 1286
MHUAA 07424 Antioquia Alejandria 6.36930 -75.02520 1286
MHUAA 07425 Antioquia Alejandria 6.36930 -75.02520 1286
MHUAA 08495 Antioquia Alejandria 6.39128 -75.03640 1291
MHUAA 08498 Antioquia Alejandria 6.39128 -75.03640 1291
MHUAA 07127 Antioquia Alejandria 6.36888 -75.02544 1300
MHUAA 07131 Antioquia Alejandria 6.36888 -75.02544 1300
MHUAA 07139 Antioquia Alejandria 6.37236 -75.04374 1307
MHUAA 08227 Antioquia Alejandria 6.36725 -75.02723 1309
MHUAA 08487 Antioquia Alejandria 6.36725 -75.02723 1309
MHUAA 08489 Antioquia Alejandria 6.36725 -75.02723 1309
MHUAA 08588 Antioquia Alejandria 6.36728 -75.02697 1313
MHUAA 01168 Antioquia Amalfi 6.80900 -75.15150 900
MHUAA 01487 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78605 -75.13393 940
MHUAA 01427 Antioquia Amalfi 6.91194 -75.07833 980
MHUAA 01467 Antioquia Amalfi 6.91194 -75.07833 980
MHUAA 01486 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78950 -75.08003 1000
MHUAA 01160 Antioquia Amalfi 6.91194 -75.07833 1050
MHUAA 01967 Antioquia Amalfi 6.93860 -75.02917 1550
MHUAA 01968 Antioquia Amalfi 6.93860 -75.02917 1550
MHUAA 03082 Antioquia Amalfi 6.87361 -75.09881 1844
MHUAA 01973 Antioquia Amalfi 6.80289 -75.14575 1850
MHUAA 02440 Antioquia Amalfi 6.80289 -75.14575 1875
MHUAA 02441 Antioquia Amalfi 6.80289 -75.14575 1875
MHUAA 09430 Antioquia Amalfi 6.82106 -75.07454 1924
MHUAA 09436 Antioquia Amalfi 6.82090 -75.07452 1935
MHUAA 04485 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78605 -75.13393
MHUAA 04486 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78605 -75.13393
MHUAA 04490 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78605 -75.13393
MHUAA 04491 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78605 -75.13393
MHUAA 04492 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78605 -75.13393
MHUAA 04493 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78605 -75.13393
MHUAA 04494 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78605 -75.13393
MHUAA 04597 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78950 -75.08003
MHUAA 04734 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78605 -75.13393
MHUAA 05368 Antioquia Amalfi 6.97861 -75.04444
MHUAA 05371 Antioquia Amalfi 6.97861 -75.04444
MHUAA 06101 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78605 -75.13393
MHUAA 06102 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78605 -75.13393
MHUAA 06103 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78605 -75.13393
MHUAA 06104 Antioquia Amalfi 6.78605 -75.13393
MHUAA 00012 Antioquia Anori 7.07842 -75.15067 790
MHUAA 05233 Antioquia Anori 6.98500 -75.08972 875
MHUAA 05234 Antioquia Anori 6.98500 -75.08972 875
MHUAA 08571 Antioquia Anori 7.07833 -75.12333 1443
MHUAA 03942 Antioquia Anori 6.98690 -75.13750 1538
MHUAA 03943 Antioquia Anori 6.98690 -75.13750 1538
MHUAA 03944 Antioquia Anori 6.98690 -75.13750 1538
MHUAA 03955 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954 1538
MHUAA 03956 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954 1538
MHUAA 03957 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954 1538
MHUAA 05563 Antioquia Anori 6.98690 -75.13750 1600
MHUAA 05564 Antioquia Anori 6.98690 -75.13750 1600
MHUAA 05565 Antioquia Anori 6.98690 -75.13750 1600
MHUAA 05566 Antioquia Anori 6.98690 -75.13750 1600
MHUAA 05350 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05352 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05353 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05354 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05355 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05547 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05551 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05557 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05558 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05559 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05569 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05570 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05571 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05572 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05573 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05574 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05575 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 05582 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110 1650
MHUAA 08979 Antioquia Anori 6.98047 -75.13625 1723
MHUAA 05050 Antioquia Anori 6.98333 -75.13472 1728
MHUAA 04550 Antioquia Anori 6.98333 -75.13472 1732
MHUAA 04551 Antioquia Anori 6.98333 -75.13472 1732
MHUAA 04610 Antioquia Anori 6.98333 -75.13472 1732
MHUAA 08978 Antioquia Anori 6.97987 -75.13596 1764
MHUAA 03908 Antioquia Anori 6.98500 -75.14111 1787
MHUAA 03909 Antioquia Anori 6.98500 -75.14111 1787
MHUAA 03474 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 03480 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 03481 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 03482 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 03483 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 03484 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 03485 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 03486 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 03487 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 03488 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 03489 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 03490 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 03491 Antioquia Anori 6.98333 -75.13472
MHUAA 03492 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 03938 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 03939 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 03940 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 03941 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 03958 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 03959 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 03960 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 03961 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 03962 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 04272 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 04273 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 04274 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 04275 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 04276 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 04277 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 04552 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 04553 Antioquia Anori 6.98778 -75.14330
MHUAA 05147 Antioquia Anori 6.81296 -75.05954
MHUAA 05580 Antioquia Anori 6.97830 -75.11110
MHUAA 08290 Antioquia Briceno 7.12059 -75.63442 1139
MHUAA 08292 Antioquia Briceno 7.12060 -75.64030 1230
MHUAA 08649 Antioquia Canasgordas 6.79170 -76.06717 1055
MHUAA 08650 Antioquia Canasgordas 6.76353 -76.02791 1278
MHUAA 06770 Antioquia Chigorodo 7.52110 -76.59020 56
MHUAA 07785 Antioquia Chigorodo 7.52509 -76.59398 94
MHUAA 07788 Antioquia Chigorodo 7.52509 -76.59398 94
MHUAA 07789 Antioquia Chigorodo 7.52509 -76.59398 94
MHUAA 07790 Antioquia Chigorodo 7.52509 -76.59398 94
MHUAA 07791 Antioquia Chigorodo 7.52509 -76.59398 94
MHUAA 07794 Antioquia Chigorodo 7.52509 -76.59398 94
MHUAA 07796 Antioquia Chigorodo 7.52509 -76.59398 94
MHUAA 07101 Antioquia Cisneros 6.53770 -75.12575 1368
MHUAA 07100 Antioquia Cisneros 6.53785 -75.12635 1381
MHUAA 08519 Antioquia Cocorna 6.00215 -75.09375 988
MHUAA 07276 Antioquia Don Matias 6.51181 -75.25195 1130
MHUAA 07277 Antioquia Don Matias 6.51181 -75.25195 1130
MHUAA 07280 Antioquia Don Matias 6.51181 -75.25195 1130
MHUAA 07281 Antioquia Don Matias 6.51181 -75.25195 1130
MHUAA 07282 Antioquia Don Matias 6.51181 -75.25195 1130
MHUAA 10260 Antioquia Carmen de V. 6.02675 -75.22936 1835
MHUAA 05212 Antioquia Girardota 6.40633 -75.44472 1521
MHUAA 06639 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58472 -75.19889 1080
MHUAA 06642 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58472 -75.19889 1080
MHUAA 07146 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58472 -75.19889 1080
MHUAA 07147 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58472 -75.19889 1080
MHUAA 07649 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58472 -75.19889 1085
MHUAA 05834 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58472 -75.19889 1093
MHUAA 05967 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58472 -75.19889 1093
MHUAA 05971 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58472 -75.19889 1093
MHUAA 05973 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58472 -75.19889 1093
MHUAA 08673 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58139 -75.19623 1093
MHUAA 08165 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58151 -75.19761 1103
MHUAA 08166 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58151 -75.19761 1103
MHUAA 08168 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58151 -75.19761 1103
MHUAA 05726 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58472 -75.19889
MHUAA 06276 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58472 -75.19889
MHUAA 06284 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58472 -75.19889
MHUAA 06287 Antioquia Gomez Plata 6.58472 -75.19889
MHUAA 08296 Antioquia Granada 6.10671 -75.08196 1197
MHUAA 04811 Antioquia Maceo 6.54690 -74.64360 500
MHUAA 04753 Antioquia Mutata 7.20231 -76.44225 217
MHUAA 06918 Antioquia Remedios 896
MHUAA 06916 Antioquia Remedios
MHUAA 08209 Antioquia San Carlos 6.19570 -74.81670 613
MHUAA 07074 Antioquia San Carlos 6.21561 -74.81189 795
MHUAA 07134 Antioquia San Carlos 6.20671 -74.85500 824
MHUAA 07213 Antioquia San Carlos 6.21678 -74.86497 851
MHUAA 07142 Antioquia San Carlos 6.20441 -74.85477 858
MHUAA 08295 Antioquia San Carlos 6.13667 -75.05630 1342
MHUAA 09748 Antioquia San Rafael 6.28365 -74.92393 934
MHUAA 09735 Antioquia San Rafael 6.32809 -75.01195 1008
MHUAA 09727 Antioquia San Rafael 6.32860 -75.01146 1010
MHUAA 09737 Antioquia San Rafael 6.32865 -75.01147 1013
MHUAA 09733 Antioquia San Rafael 6.32831 -75.01188 1023
MHUAA 07034 Antioquia San Rafael 6.34818 -75.00237 1030
MHUAA 07035 Antioquia San Rafael 6.34818 -75.00237 1030
MHUAA 07036 Antioquia San Rafael 6.34818 -75.00237 1030
MHUAA 07059 Antioquia San Rafael 6.34818 -75.00237 1030
MHUAA 07060 Antioquia San Rafael 6.34818 -75.00237 1030
MHUAA 09725 Antioquia San Rafael 6.32834 -75.01184 1032
MHUAA 09734 Antioquia San Rafael 6.32866 -75.01155 1034
MHUAA 09721 Antioquia San Rafael 6.32820 -75.01186 1039
MHUAA 09722 Antioquia San Rafael 6.32820 -75.01186 1039
MHUAA 09736 Antioquia San Rafael 6.32820 -75.01186 1039
MHUAA 09760 Antioquia San Rafael 6.29817 -74.91981 1151
MHUAA 09756 Antioquia San Rafael 6.29771 -74.91969 1161
MHUAA 09753 Antioquia San Rafael 6.29698 -74.91936 1173
MHUAA 09754 Antioquia San Rafael 6.29647 -74.91934 1193
MHUAA 08172 Antioquia San Rafael 6.28033 -75.04346 1233
MHUAA 08173 Antioquia San Rafael 6.28033 -75.04346 1233
MHUAA 08174 Antioquia San Rafael 6.28033 -75.04346 1233
MHUAA 06686 Antioquia San Roque 6.49774 -74.95490 1074
MHUAA 06687 Antioquia San Roque 6.49774 -74.95490 1074
MHUAA 07138 Antioquia San Roque 6.40684 -75.02533 1107
MHUAA 08624 Antioquia San Roque 6.47147 -74.85585 1108
MHUAA 08618 Antioquia San Roque 6.47192 -74.88449 1172
MHUAA 08595 Antioquia Santa R. de Osos 6.57869 -75.29236 1346
MHUAA 08593 Antioquia Santa R. de Osos 6.57975 -75.29783 1453
MHUAA 08594 Antioquia Santa R. de Osos 6.57975 -75.29783 1453
MHUAA 08012 Antioquia Urrao 6.40340 -76.29003 959
MHUAA 08011 Antioquia Urrao 6.39946 -76.25956 1080
MHUAA 06866 Antioquia Yarumal 7.07592 -75.42171 1520
MHUAA 06867 Antioquia Yarumal 7.07592 -75.42171 1520
MHUAA 06869 Antioquia Yarumal 7.07592 -75.42171 1520
MHUAA 06877 Antioquia Yarumal 7.07592 -75.42171 1520
MHUAA 06878 Antioquia Yarumal 7.07592 -75.42171 1520
MHUAA 06879 Antioquia Yarumal 7.07592 -75.42171 1520
MHUAA 06880 Antioquia Yarumal 7.07592 -75.42171 1520
MHUAA 06883 Antioquia Yarumal 7.07592 -75.42171 1520
MHUAA 04087 Antioquia Yarumal 7.06861 -75.41889 1720
MHUAA 01465 Antioquia Yolombo 6.76241 -75.09489 950
MHUAA 08162 Antioquia Yolombo 6.77641 -75.07880 963
MHUAA 08163 Antioquia Yolombo 6.77641 -75.07880 963
MHUAA 01161 Antioquia Yolombo 6.59793 -75.01852 1000
MHUAA 04484 Antioquia Yolombo 6.73600 -75.07583 1102
MHUAA 00775 Antioquia Yolombo 6.76241 -75.09489 1115
MHUAA 06108 Antioquia Yolombo 6.76241 -75.09489 1115
MHUAA 06109 Antioquia Yolombo 6.76241 -75.09489 1115
MHUAA 08018 Antioquia Yolombo 6.76241 -75.09489 1115
MHUAA 08019 Antioquia Yolombo 6.76241 -75.09489 1115
MHUAA 08020 Antioquia Yolombo 6.76241 -75.09489 1115
MHUAA 08021 Antioquia Yolombo 6.76241 -75.09489 1115
MHUAA 04731 Antioquia Yolombo 6.73600 -75.07583
MHUAA 04859 Antioquia Yolombo 6.73600 -75.07583
MHUAA 07367 Bolivar Norosi 8.41510 -74.22115 881
MHUAA 07368 Bolivar Norosi 8.41510 -74.22115 881
MHUAA 07369 Bolivar Norosi 8.41510 -74.22115 881
MHUAA 07370 Bolivar Norosi 8.41510 -74.22115 881
MHUAA 07364 Bolivar Norosi 8.41318 -74.23162 885
MHUAA 07379 Bolivar Norosi 8.41318 -74.23162 885
MHUAA 01795 Santander Betulia 6.95339 -73.31842 1300
MHUAA 01796 Santander Betulia 6.95339 -73.31842 1300
MHUAA 01797 Santander Betulia 6.95339 -73.31842 1300
MHUAA 01799 Santander Betulia 6.95339 -73.31842 1300
MHUAA 01800 Santander Betulia 6.95339 -73.31842 1300
MHUAA 01801 Santander Betulia 6.95339 -73.31842 1300
MHUAA 01803 Santander Betulia 6.95339 -73.31842 1300
MHUAA 01824 Santander Betulia 6.95339 -73.31842 1300
MHUAA 01802 Santander Betulia 6.95339 -73.31842 1350
MHUAA 01794 Santander Betulia 6.95339 -73.31842 1400
MHUAA 02309 Santander Betulia 6.95339 -73.31842 1400
MHUAA 01804 Santander C. de Chucuri 6.63958 -73.55200 850
MHUAA 01808 Santander C. de Chucuri 6.63958 -73.55200 850
MHUAA 01805 Santander C. de Chucuri 6.63958 -73.55200 1075
MHUAA 01806 Santander C. de Chucuri 6.63958 -73.55200 1080
MHUAA 01807 Santander C. de Chucuri 6.63958 -73.55200 1080
MHUAA 01825 Santander C. de Chucuri 6.63958 -73.55200 1080
MHUAA 01826 Santander C. de Chucuri 6.63958 -73.55200 1080
MHUAA 01827 Santander C. de Chucuri 6.63958 -73.55200 1080
MHUAA 01828 Santander C. de Chucuri 6.63958 -73.55200 1080
MHUAA 09861 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.79158 -73.47604 1234
MHUAA 05494 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05495 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05496 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05497 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05498 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05499 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05500 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05501 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05502 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05509 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05510 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05511 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05512 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05513 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.87667 -73.38528 1258
MHUAA 05507 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.88639 -73.36639 1314
MHUAA 05508 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.88639 -73.36639 1314
MHUAA 09851 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.79363 -73.47725 1336
MHUAA 09858 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.79363 -73.47725 1336
MHUAA 09776 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.79277 -73.47946 1425
MHUAA 09772 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.79299 -73.47943 1436
MHUAA 09788 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.79499 -73.47968 1450
MHUAA 09836 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.79677 -73.47838 1466
MHUAA 09837 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.79677 -73.47838 1466
MHUAA 09843 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.79677 -73.47838 1466
MHUAA 05503 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.84333 -73.36917 1692
MHUAA 05504 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.84333 -73.36917 1692
MHUAA 05505 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.84333 -73.36917 1692
MHUAA 05506 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.84333 -73.36917 1692
MHUAA 05639 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.84333 -73.36917 1692
MHUAA 05640 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.84333 -73.36917 1692
MHUAA 05641 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.84333 -73.36917 1692
MHUAA 05642 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.84333 -73.36917 1692
MHUAA 05643 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.84333 -73.36917 1692
MHUAA 05644 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.84333 -73.36917 1692
MHUAA 05645 Santander San V. de Chucuri 6.84333 -73.36917 1692

GenBank accession numbers for the COI fragment used in this study. Species from the Pristimantis ridens series were obtained from Crawford et al. (2013; http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1755-0998.12054/suppinfo).

Species Voucher Locality COI
Pristimantis erythropleura MHUAA 8112 Urrao, Antioquia KY652598
Pristimantis erythropleura MHUAA 8114 Urrao, Antioquia KY652599
Pristimantis erythropleura nrps0055 Valle del Cauca JN991372
Pristimantis erythropleura nrps0057 Valle del Cauca JN991373
Pristimantis erythropleura UVC15886 Valle del Cauca JN371127
Pristimantis erythropleura UVC15933 Valle del Cauca JN371126
Pristimantis penelopus AJC1344 Antioquia JN991389
Pristimantis penelopus EMM247 Antioquia JN991412
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 5494 Santander KY652600
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 5496 Santander KY652601
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 6686 Antioquia KY652602
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 7127 Antioquia KY652603
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 7131 Antioquia KY652604
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 7132 Antioquia KY652605
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 7138 Antioquia KY652606
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 7139 Antioquia KY652607
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 7367 Bolívar KY652608
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 7368 Bolívar KY652609
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 7379 Bolívar KY652610
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 7422 Antioquia KY652611
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 7785 Antioquia KY652612
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 7788 Antioquia KY652613
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 7789 Antioquia KY652614
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 8011 Antioquia KY652615
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 8290 Antioquia KY652616
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 8519 Antioquia KY652617
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 8649 Antioquia KY652618
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 8650 Antioquia KY652619
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 8978 Antioquia KY652620
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 8979 Antioquia KY652621
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 9430 Antioquia KY652622
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 9788 Santander KY652623
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 9837 Santander KY652624
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 9843 Santander KY652625
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 9861 Santander KY652626
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 10463 Antioquia KY652627
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 10487 Antioquia KY652628
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 10502 Antioquia KY652629
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 10506 Antioquia KY652630
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 10560 Antioquia KY652631
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 10724 Antioquia KY652632
Pristimantis penelopus MHUAA 10725 Antioquia KY652633
Pristimantis viejas MHUAA 6597 Antioquia KY652634
Pristimantis viejas MHUAA 7119 Antioquia KY652635

Received: February 02, 2017; Accepted: March 16, 2017

Editor Responsável: Carlos José Einicker Lamas

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License