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Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia

versión impresa ISSN 0031-1049versión On-line ISSN 1807-0205

Pap. Avulsos Zool. vol.58  São Paulo  2018  Epub 07-Mayo-2018

http://dx.doi.org/10.11606/1807-0205/2018.58.21 

Articles

Triplocania Roesler: a new species, redescriptions, description of the female of Triplocania spinosa Mockford, and revalidation of the original combination of Belicania cervantesi (García Aldrete) (Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’: Ptiloneuridae)

Alberto Moreira da Silva-Neto1  3 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0954-3381

Alfonso Neri García Aldrete2 

José Albertino Rafael1  4 

1Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Coordenação de Pesquisas em Entomologia (CPEN), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Entomologia (PPG-ENT). Manaus, AM, Brasil.

2Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Instituto de Biología, Departamento de Zoología. México, D.F., México. E-mail: anga@ib.unam.mx

Abstract

Triplocania umbrataoides sp. nov., from the Río Tambopata Reserved Zone, in Madre de Dios, Peru, is here described and illustrated. Triplocania magnifica Roesler and the male of Triplocania spinosa Mockford are redescribed and illustrated. The female Triplocania spinosa is here described and illustrated. The original combination of Belicania cervantesi (García Aldrete) is revalidated.

Key-Words. Epipsocetae; Psocids; Neotropics; Taxonomy

INTRODUCTION

TriplocaniaRoesler (1940) is one of 12 genera in the psocopteran family Ptiloneuridae; it is the most speciose genus of the family, currently including 90 described species, with 38 species known only from males, 22 species known only from females and 30 species known from both sexes. The type species is Triplocania magnifica Roesler, from Nova Teutonia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. It was originally in Roesler’s private collection; the Gaedike catalogue (1970) indicates that the type series would be deposited in one of the collections of the Deutschen Entomologischen Institutes (DEI) in Berlin, Germany and elsewhere in the Szczecin Museum in Poland. The collections that were deposited at the old DEI are now at the Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Berlin, Germany. One of us (AMSN) tried to contact both institutions to search for the type of T. magnifica, without success.

New (1980) described Triplocania umbrata, on basis of two females from the Reserva Ducke, Amazonas, Brazil. Later on, García Aldrete (1999), studied one male and one female from the Río Tambopata Reserved Zone, in Madre de Dios, Peru, that he considered conspecific with T. umbrata, described the male, and illustrated the female. The comparison of that female with the holotype of T. umbrata New, deposited in the Coleção de Invertebrados, INPA, Amazonas, Brazil, proved that the female from Peru is not conspecific with the females of T. umbrata, so that the specimens from Peru constitute an undescribed species.

Triplocania spinosa Mockford was described on basis of a male specimen from Guatemala in 1957 and to date the female remains unknown.

García Aldrete (1999) described T. cervantesi. Later, García Aldrete (2006) created for it the monotypic genus Belicania, based on some peculiar characteristics of its hypandrium, more precisely: hypandrium of one sclerite, with two distinct, postero-lateral, slender, acuminate apophyses, curved inward; lacking smaller, side sclerites.

The purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the new specie from Peru; redescribe and illustrate T. magnifica and the male of T. spinosa Mockford, as well as illustrate and describe the female of T. spinosa and revalidate the original combination of Belicania cervantesi (García Aldrete).

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Fifteen specimens were available for study. They were dissected in 80% ethanol; their parts were mounted in Canada balsam: head, right antennae with distal flagellomeres and mouthparts (right laciniae and maxillary palps, right and left mandibles, labium and labrum), and right legs, right and left wings, and genitals. Before dissecting, the specimens were placed in 80% ethanol under a dissecting microscope, illuminated with cold, white light, and observed at 50X to record color. Standard measurements (in μm), were taken with a filar micrometer. Abbreviations of parts measured are as follows: FW and HW: right fore- and hind- wing lengths, F, T, t1, t2 and t3: lengths of femur, tibia and tarsomeres 1, 2 and 3 of right hind leg, f1…fn: lengths of flagellomeres 1…n of right antenna, Mx1-Mx4: lengths of segments of right maxillary palpus, IO: minimum distance between compound eyes in dorsal view of head, D and d: antero-posterior and transverse diameter, respectively, of right compound eye in dorsal view of head, PO: d/D. The final storage of the specimens was in “CD boxes” as described by Silva-Neto et al. (2016a).

Photographs of the specimens were taken with a Leica DFC500 digital camera attached to a Leica M205C stereomicroscope, connected to a computer with the Leica Application Suite LAS V3.6 software, which includes an Auto-Montage module (Syncroscopy software). The specimens of T. spinosa will be deposited in the Colección Nacional de Insectos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México City (CNIN). The specimens of T. magnifica and the types of the peruvian species will be deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil (INPA).

RESULTS

Triplocania Roesler

TriplocaniaRoesler, 1940: 239

BelicaniaGarcía Aldrete, 2006a: 5 syn. nov.

Diagnosis: Vein M of the hindwing unbranched; forewing areola postica high, short or long and sinuous, vein M of the forewing with three primary branches, occasionally dichotomously branched, resulting in M3a and M3b; phallosome with side struts proximally separated or fused, fused or not posteriorly to external parameres, with or without transverse mesal sclerite, with two-five pairs of endophallic sclerites; hypandrium of one or subdivided in three, four or five sclerites, v1 slender or stout.

Triplocania cervantesi García Aldrete rev. comb.

Triplocania cervantesiGarcía Aldrete, 1999: 155, figs. 21-29; Lienhard & Smithers, 2002 (catalog); Casasola González, 2006: 29 (phylogeny).

Belicania cervantesi (García Aldrete), 2006: 4, figs. 10-18 (new combination); Silva-Neto & García Aldrete, 2015: 168 (Taxonomy); Silva-Neto, García Aldrete & Rafael, 2016b: 73 (phylogeny).

Diagnosis: As described by García Aldrete (1999).

Male: As described by García Aldrete (1999).

Female: As described by García Aldrete (1999).

Material examined: Holotype: ♂ (Natural History Museum of London). Belize. Cayo District, Chiquibul Forest Reserve. Las Cuevas. 03-06.IV.1995. Malaise trap 14. Howe & T. King. Paratypes: 2 ♀ (NHM), same data as the holotype, except: 1 ♀. Las Cuevas. 23-26.I.1995, and 1 ♀ Las Cuevas. 13-16.IX.1994.

Comments:García Aldrete (1999) described T. cervantesi on basis of three male specimens and nine female specimens. Later García Aldrete (2006) based mostly on some peculiar characteristics of the hypandrium (detailed above in the introduction), created for it the monotypic genus Belicania. In 2006 there were only 25 described species of Triplocania. With the huge increase in the diversity of Triplocania in this decade and with the description of Triplocania species with new morphological unprecedented characteristics, as the hypandria of T. bravoi Silva-Neto, Rafael & García Aldrete, T. lamasi Silva-Neto, Rafael & García Aldrete, T. manueli Silva-Neto, García Aldrete & Rafael and numerous other characteristics of other Triplocania species described recently, put in doubt the new combination proposed by García Aldrete in 2006. Based on the above information, Belicania is being synonymized with Triplocania.

Triplocania magnifica Roesler (Figs. 1-14)

Figures 1-7 Triplocania magnifica Roesler (male specimen from Nova Teutônia, Brazil). (1) Front view of head. (2) Forewing. (3) Hindwing. (4) Lacinial tip. (5) Hypandrium. (6) Phallosome. (7) Clunium, epiproct and right paraproct. Scales in mm. 

Figures 8-14 Triplocania magnifica Roesler (female specimen from Nova Teutônia, Brazil). (8) Front view of head. (9) Forewing. (10) Hindwing. (11) Lacinial tip. (12) Subgenital plate. (13) Ninth sternum and gonapophyses. (14) Clunium, left paraproct and epiproct. Scales in mm. 

Triplocania magnificaRoesler, 1940a: 241, figs. 27-31; Lienhard & Smithers, 2002 (catalog); Gaedike, 1970: 465 (catalog); Silva-Neto & García Aldrete, 2016 (catalog); Silva-Neto, García Aldrete & Rafael, 2016c: 252 (taxonomy).

Diagnosis: Forewing with a U-shaped band from apex of the areola postica to anterior and posterior ends of pterostigma, forewing M abruptly concave before its first bifurcation, areola postica sinuous with a concavity in the middle; hypandrium of three sclerites, with central sclerite straight anteriorly, posteriorly with one short, almost triangular projection on each antero-lateral extreme, with a long, slender, blunt projection in the middle, setae as illustrated; side struts proximally expanded in shield shape and v1 stout and wider in the middle.

Redescription of the male

Color: Compound eyes black, ocelli hyaline, with ochre centripetal crescents; head pattern (Fig. 1). Scape brown, pedicel yellow, f1-f3 yellow. Mx4 yellow with distal end brown. Femora brown with distal ends yellow; tibiae pale brown; tarsomere 1 pale yellow and tarsomeres 2-3 pale brown. Forewing with a brown marginal band from R₄₊₅ to areola postica, from it arise two brown arms, to anterior and distal ends of pterostigma, U-shaped, leaving a hyaline area between them; a large dark brown area on proximal end of wing; veins brown, with dark brown spots at wing margin (Fig. 2). Hindwings almost hyaline, with area limited by CuP brown anteriorly and pale brown posteriorly, apex pale brown; veins brown, with dark brown spots at wing margin (Fig. 3).

Morphology: Compound eyes without interommatidial setae. Outer cusp of lacinial tip broad, with three denticles (Fig. 4). Forewing pterostigma basally narrow, wider in the middle, narrowing posteriorly; areola postica with apex rounded, strongly slanted posteriorly; 2A reaching wing margin (Fig. 2). Hindwing R₂₊₃ and R₄₊₅ straight, M sinuous (Fig. 3). Hypandrium (Fig. 5) of three sclerites, central sclerite straight anteriorly, posteriorly with one short, almost triangular projection on each antero-lateral extreme, with a long, slender, blunt projection in the middle, setae as illustrated; side sclerites very large, wider in the middle, narrowing at the ends, acuminate, setae as illustrated. Phallosome (Fig. 6) shield shaped, side struts expanded, robust, fused, with a small longitudinal pigmented band in the middle, posteriorly fused to external parameres, these stout, distally sclerotized, bearing pores included in a less sclerotized area; a mesal endophallic sclerite, U-shaped, wide at base and narrowing posteriorly; two pairs of endophallic sclerites, a small mesal posterior pair, elliptical, surrounded by a distinct membranous area, a posterior lateral pair anteriorly narrow, widening posteriorly with rounded apex and a pre-apical acuminate projection in its inner margin; other membranous areas as illustrated. Epiproct wide, almost straight anteriorly, rounded posteriorly, with three setae mesally, other setae as illustrated (Fig. 7). Paraprocts broad, narrow at their point of attachment to the clunium, widening posteriorly, with setae in a less sclerotized posterior area, sensory fields with 34 trichobothria on basal rosettes (Fig. 7).

Measurements (in microns): FW: 4908, HW: 3200, F: 989, T: 1689, t1: 723, t2: 81, t3: 149, f1: 757, f2: 571, f3: 464, Mx4: 289, IO: 483, D: 341, d: 220, PO: 0.64.

Redescription of the female

Color: Essentially as in the male.

Morphology: Head and wings same as in the male (Figs. 8, 9 and 10). Outer cusp of lacinial tip broad, with two denticles (Fig. 11). Subgenital plate broad, anteriorly almost rectangular, with sides converging to apex, pigmented area wide, V-shaped, setae as illustrated (Fig. 12). Ninth sternum almost rectangular (Fig. 13) anteriorly with a pigmented band concave in the middle, posteriorly with a pigmented band convex near the posterior margin, with a distinct weak sclerotized central area. Gonapophyses: v1 stout, anteriorly heavily sclerotized, wider in the middle, narrowing at the ends and distally acuminate; v₂₊₃ broad, narrowing posteriorly, with slender and curved inwards proximal heel; ten setae on outer lobe, distal process slender, short, distally acuminate, with a field of microsetae (Fig. 13). Epiproct triangular, with three setae mesally, other setae as illustrated (Fig. 14). Paraprocts almost triangular; sensory fields with 27 trichobothria on basal rosettes (Fig. 14).

Measurements (in microns): FW: 4963, HW: 3400, F: 1085, T: 1913, t1: 780, t2: 82, t3: 138, f1: 785, f2: 639, Mx4: 321, IO: 561, D: 362, d: 201, PO: 0.55.

Type material (Not examined): Sintype series: 4 ♂, 2 ♀ (Roesler’s Private Collection). Brazil. Santa Catarina. Nova Teutônia. 11.IX.1936. Fritz Plamann leg.

Material examined: Brazil. Paraná. Guarapuava. Estação Santa Clara. P8. VIII.1986, (3 ♂, 2 ♀, INPA). Brazil. Santa Catarina. Nova Teutônia. 27°07’11.74”S, 52°32’20.22”O, 580 m. XII.2012. Armadilha Malaise. Savaris, M. (2 ♂, 1 ♀, INPA).

Comments: T. magnifica, T. manueli Silva-Neto, García Aldrete & Rafael and T. rosae Silva-Neto, García Aldrete & Rafael constitute an assemblage of related species. This assemblage is characterized by having a U-shaped band from the apex of the areola postica to the anterior and posterior ends of pterostigma, forewing M abruptly concave before its first bifurcation, side struts proximally expanded in shield shape and v1 stout and wider in the middle. Triplocania magnifica is easily separated from the other two species of this assemblage by having the hypandrium of three sclerites instead of five sclerites as in T. manueli and T. rosae.Roesler (1940) in the description and illustration of the hypandrium of T. magnifica omitted or did not observe the presence of the lateral sclerites (see fig. 30 in Roesler, 1940). The central sclerite of the hypandrium of the specimens of T. magnifica used here in the redescriptions is identical to the illustration in Roesler (1940) and this, besides the fact that they were collected in the type locality of the species (Nova Teutônia) prove that they belong to T. magnifica.

Triplocania spinosa Mockford (Figs. 15-26)

Figures 15-20 Triplocania spinosa Mockford (male specimen from Veracruz, México). (15) Front view of head. (16) Forewing. (17) Hindwing. (18) Hypandrium. (19) Phallosome. (20) Clunium, left paraproct and epiproct. Scales in mm. 

Figures 21-26 Triplocania spinosa Mockford (female specimen from Veracruz, México). (21) Front view of head. (22) Forewing. (23) Hindwing. (24) Subgenital plate. (25) Ninth sternum and gonapophyses. (26) Clunium, left paraproct and epiproct. Scales in mm. 

Triplocania spinosaMockford, 1957: 199, figs. 57-62; García Aldrete, 1995: 19 (taxonomy); Mockford & García Aldrete, 1996 (checklist); García Aldrete & Casasola Gonzalez, 1999 (checklist); Lienhard & Smithers, 2002 (catalog); García Aldrete, 2012: 170 (Taxonomy); Silva-Neto, García Aldrete & Rafael, 2016c: 252 (taxonomy).

Diagnosis: Forewing with a marginal pigmented band from R₄₊₅ to Cu1a, with a convex hyaline fenestrae on outer border between each vein end; hypandrium of one sclerite, with stout, spinose, blunt ended postero-lateral projections curved inwards, and a short, median posterior process, distally rounded, weakly sclerotized; phallosome with a small anterior mesal sclerite and four pairs of endophallic sclerites (Fig. 19); ninth sternum elliptic, anteriorly with a deep cleft in the middle, sides converging towards a membranous posterior border.

Redescription of the male

Color: Compound eyes black, ocelli hyaline, with ochre centripetal crescents; head pattern (Fig. 15). Scape brown, pedicel yellow, f1 with pre-apical region brown and apex white, f2-f3 anteriorly brown, posteriorly yellow, with pre-apical region brown and apex white, f4-f5 brown with apex white. Femora yellow with two alternating brown bands, tibiae and tarsomeres 1-3 yellow. Forewing (Fig. 16), with one brown spot on apex of areola postica, distal border of cu1 brown and, pterostigma with brown bands anteriorly and posteriorly; veins brown, with brown spots at wing margin (Fig. 16). Hindwing with proximal third pale brown, a pale brown band from R₄₊₅ to vein M, veins brown (Fig. 17)

Morphology: Compound eyes without interommatidial setae (Fig. 15). Forewing pterostigma long, slender, wider in the middle, narrowing posteriorly; areola postica with apex rounded, slanted posteriorly, M stem concave proximally, then almost straight, M1 almost straight, M2 and M3 sinuous (Fig. 16). Hindwing R₂₊₃ and R₄₊₅ straight, M sinuous (Fig. 17). Hypandrium (Fig. 18) almost straight anteriorly, with setae as illustrated (Fig. 18). Phallosome (Fig. 19) with side struts long, slender, fused basally, V-shaped, fused posteriorly to external parameres, the latter stout and slightly curved inwards, bearing pores distally. Endophallic sclerites as in Fig. 19. Epiproct wide based, almost straight anteriorly, with sides converging to straight posterior border; three mesal macrosetae, other setae as illustrated (Fig. 20). Paraprocts broad, sensory fields with 33 trichobothria on basal rosettes, setae as illustrated (Fig. 20).

Measurements (in microns): FW: 3930, HW: 2750, F: 1244, T: 1735, t1: 823, t2: 76, t3: 135, f1: 542, f2: 420, f3: 365, f4: 309, f5: 288, Mx4: 290, IO: 339, D: 471, d: 346, PO: 0.73.

Description of the female

Color: Essentially as in the male.

Morphology: Compound eyes without interommatidial setae (Fig. 21). Fore- and hind- wings (Figs. 22, 23) same as in the male. Subgenital plate broad, wide basally, with sides converging towards a straight posterior border, pigmented area wide, V-shaped, setae as illustrated (Fig. 24). Ninth sternum (Fig. 25). Gonapophyses: v1 long, curved, slender, acuminate, heavily sclerotized; v₂₊₃ stout, with pointed proximal heel, with eleven setae on v2 as illustrated, distal process slender, short, acuminate (Fig. 25). Epiproct triangular, with three mesal setae, other setae as illustrated (Fig. 26). Paraprocts almost triangular, broad, sensory fields with 27 trichobothria on basal rosettes; setae as illustrated (Fig. 26).

Measurements (in microns): FW: 4120, HW: 2950, F: 1310, T: 2026, t1: 870, t2: 85, t3: 170, f1: 520, f2: 400, f3: 370, f4: 302, f5: 277, Mx4: 270, IO: 370, D: 480, d: 317, PO: 0.67.

Type material (Not examined): Holotype: ♂ (E.L. Mockford Collection, School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois, USA). Guatemala. Tikal. Departamento de Petén. 14.II.1956. ligth trap. I.J. Cantrall.

Material examined: México. Veracruz. Los Tuxtlas. UNAM Biology Station. 21.XII.1983. On Ficus trunks. 1 ♂. 09.VII.1988. On butressed tree trunks. 1 ♀. Ca. Laguna Escondida, ca. Estación de Biología, UNAM. 08.VII.1988. On butressed tree trunks. 1 ♀. All specimens collected by A.N. García Aldrete, and deposited in the National Insect Collection (CNIN), Instituto de Biología, UNAM, México City.

Comments:Mockford (1957) illustrated the hypandrium of T. spinosa connected to the phallosome, which may have hampered a detailed description of the latter (see figs. 3, 12 in Mockford 1957). The hypandrium of one sclerite in T. spinosa is shared by other thirteen species of Triplocania (T. calcarata New, T. newi Silva-Neto, Rafael & García Aldrete, T. caudata New, T. caudatoides García Aldrete, T. cervantesi García Aldrete, T. halffterorum García Aldrete, T. immaculata New, T. chocoensis González, Carrejo & García Aldrete, T. embera González, Carrejo & García Aldrete, T. garciamarquezi González, Carrejo & García Aldrete, T. huitota González, Carrejo & García Aldrete, T. lithophila González, Carrejo & García Aldrete and T. lamensuraensis González, Carrejo & García Aldrete). Triplocania spinosa differs from all other species with hypandrium of one sclerite by the structure of the hypandrium, phallosome, ninth sternum and pattern of forewing pigmentation and venation.

Triplocania umbrataoides sp. nov.

Triplocania umbrataGarcía Aldrete, 1999: 164-165: male-female association by error). (Figs. 27-41).

Figures 27-34 Triplocania umbrataoides sp. nov. (Holotype male). (27) Front view of head. (28) Left forewing. (29) Right forewing. (30) Hindwing. (32) Lacinial tip. (32) Hypandrium. (33) Phallosome. (34) Clunium, right paraproct and epiproct. Scales in mm. 

Figures 35-41 Triplocania umbrataoides sp. nov. (Paratype female). (35) Front view of head. (36) Forewing. (37) Hindwing. (38) Lacinial tip. (39) Subgenital plate. (40) Ninth sternum and gonapophyses. (41) Clunium, left paraproct and epiproct. Scales in mm. 

Diagnosis: Forewing veins R₂₊₃ to Cu1a with a brown spot at wing margin, from M1 to anterior end of wing, the vein spots connected to form a slender marginal band; other brown areas as illustrated (Figs. 28-29); setae of the forewing veins arising from brown areolae; vein Rs notably longer than R₂₊₃, R₄₊₅ and M stem, this concave before its first bifurcation. Hypandrium with a large central sclerite, anteriorly convex, with mesal processes directed outwards; posterior process stout; distally cleft in the middle, with projections directed outwards. Phallosome with side struts fused posteriorly to external parameres. Ninth sternum broad, anteriorly with two blunt projections, leaving between them a membranous concave area; a mesal transverse sclerotized band in the middle; two almost elliptic areas, well defined, near posterior border, with a pigmented band, almost rectangular between them.

Male: Color: Compound eyes black, ocelli hyaline, with ochre centripetal crescents; head pattern (Fig. 27). Scape and pedicel yellow. Femora pale yellow; tibiae pale yellow with distal ends yellow; tarsomeres 1-3 yellow. Forewings (Figs. 28-29); pterostigma almost entirely pigmented, with a central hyaline area; veins. Hindwing almost hyaline, with brown spots distally on R₂₊₃, R₄₊₅ and M; veins brown.

Morphology: Compound eyes without interommatidial setae. Outer cusp of lacinial tip broad, with three denticles (Fig. 31). Forewing pterostigma almost triangular, narrow basally; Rs sinuous, R₂₊₃ slightly convex, R₄₊₅ straight, M concave, M₁ slightly convex, M₂ and M₃ straight; areola postica tall, with round apex, 2A not reaching wing margin (Fig. 28); right forewing anomalous, having an additional crossvein from the proximal end of Rs to R₁ (Fig. 29). Hindwing Rs almost straight, R₂₊₃ straight, R₄₊₅ almost straight, M sinuous (Fig. 30). Hypandrium of three sclerites; central sclerite flanked anteriorly by stout, irregular side sclerites; setae as illustrated (Fig. 32). Phallosome (Fig. 33) with side struts independent, V-shaped, with a strong narrowing in its connection to external parameres, these basally wide, distally rounded, bearing pores; three pairs of endophallic sclerites, anterior pair with arms L-shaped, close to each other, distally narrowing to end; mesal pair with arms Y-shaped, proximal arms with small protuberances; distal arms bow-shaped, ending in a rounded, hyaline area; median arms curved, slender, directed posteriorly, acuminate; posterior pair proximally wide, membranous, distally sclerotized, curved inwards. Epiproct wide basally, with sides converging to rounded posterior border, three setae mesally, other setae as illustrated (Fig. 34). Paraprocts broad, rounded; sensory fields with 27 trichobothria on basal rosettes, setae as illustrated (Fig. 34).

Measurements (in microns): FW: 3079, HW: 2142, F: 774, IO: 388, D: 311, d: 184, IO/d: 1.24, PO: 0.66.

Female: Color: Essentially as in the male.

Morphology: Head as in the male (Fig. 35). Outer cusp of lacinial tip broad, with three denticles (Fig. 38). Fore- and hind- wings (Figs. 36, 37) as in the male. Subgenital plate broad, pigmented area widely concave, setae as illustrated (Fig. 39); Ninth sternum (Fig. 40). Gonapophyses: v1 long, slender, heavily sclerotized; v₂₊₃ stout, wider in the middle, with anterior margin almost straight, posterior margin concave, with three setae on v2, distal process slender, acuminate, basally with a field of microsetae (Fig. 79). Epiproct triangular, setae as illustrated (Fig. 41). Paraprocts broadly triangular, sensory fields with 32 trichobothria on basal rosettes, setae as illustrated (Fig. 41).

Measurements (in microns): FW: 3332, HW: 2366, F: 1040, IO: 410, D: 330, d: 198, IO/d: 2.07, PO: 0.6.

Etymology: The specific name refers to the similarity of this species to T. umbrata.

Material examined: Holotype male: Peru. Madre de Dios. Río Tambopata Reserved Zone. 30 km (air) SW Puerto Maldonado, 290 m. 12°50’S, 69°20’W. 14.IX.1984. Smithsonian Institution Canopy Fogging Project. T.L. Erwin et al. (INPA). Paratype: 1 female, same data as the holotype, except for date, 10.IX.1984. (INPA).

Comments: This species was erroneously identified by García Aldrete (1999) as T. umbrata; it has a similar pattern of pigmentation and wing venation as T. umbrata, but the ninth sternum is different (compare Fig. 40 in this paper with fig. 21 in New (1980). The phallosome of T. umbrataoides is similar to other six Triplocania species (T. lucida Roesler, T. calori Silva-Neto, García Aldrete & Rafael, T. capixaba Silva-Neto, García Aldrete & Rafael, T. ecuatoriana Silva-Neto, García Aldrete & Rafael, T. ecuatorianaoides Silva-Neto, García Aldrete & Rafael, and T. asisensis González, Carrejo & García Aldrete). Triplocania umbrataoides differs from all the other species with similar phallosomes in details of the hypandrium and phallosome (compare Figs. 71, 72 in this paper with figs. 5, 6, 20, 21, 34, 35, 41, 42 in Silva-Neto et al. (2016c), figs. 36, 37 in Roesler (1940) and figs. 42, 43 in González-Obando et al. (2017)).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

AMSN and JAR thank Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico of Brazil (CNPq) for research support. AMSN thanks particularly the support for the PDJ CnPq research grant (Process: 400.282/2017-8). JAR thanks the support for the CnPq research grant (Process: 300.997/2016-7). ANGA thanks Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, for continuous research support.

REFERENCES

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1Edited by: Carlos José Einicker Lamas

Published with the financial support of the "Programa de Apoio às Publicações Científicas Periódicas da USP"

3Seção de Publicações - Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo

Recibido: 03 de Marzo de 2018; Aprobado: 09 de Abril de 2018

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