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Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia

versión impresa ISSN 0031-1049versión On-line ISSN 1807-0205

Pap. Avulsos Zool. vol.59  São Paulo  2019  Epub 25-Mar-2019 


An overlooked hotspot for birds in the Atlantic Forest

Vagner Cavarzere1

Ciro Albano2 

Vinicius Rodrigues Tonetti3

José Fernando Pacheco4

Bret M. Whitney5

Luís Fábio Silveira6

1Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR). Santa Helena, PR, Brasil. E-mail:

2Brazil Birding Experts. Fortaleza, CE, Brasil. E-mail:

3Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Ecologia. Rio Claro, SP, Brasil. E-mail:

4Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos (CBRO). Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. E-mail:

5Louisiana State University, Museum of Natural Science. Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Estados Unidos. E-mail:

6Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Museu de Zoologia (MZUSP). São Paulo, SP, Brasil. E-mail:


Montane and submontane forest patches in the state of Bahia, Brazil, are among the few large and preserved Atlantic Forests remnants. They are strongholds of an almost complete elevational gradient, which harbor both lowland and highland bird taxa. Despite being considered a biodiversity hotspot, few ornithologists have surveyed these forests, especially along elevational gradients. Here we compile bird records acquired from systematic surveys and random observations carried out since the 1980s in a 7,500 ha private protected area: Serra Bonita private reserve. We recorded 368 species, of which 143 are Atlantic Forest endemic taxa. Some 16 and 13 species are threatened at the global and national levels, respectively. If one accounts for subspecies, the number of Brazilian threatened taxa raises to 21. Species composition differs between lower and higher elevations, in which case lowlands harbor Amazonia-related taxa, whereas highlands are the home of Atlantic Forest-related taxa.

Key-Words. Aves; Bahia; Elevational gradient; Serra Bonita


The Atlantic Forest originally comprised 150 million hectares of vegetation in highly heterogeneous environmental conditions. Its forests (the predominant type of vegetation within the domain) extend into tropical and subtropical regions due to a wide latitudinal range (ca. 30°). The structure of these forests is quite distinct as one leaves Brazilian eastern shores into the interior of the country mostly because of the decreased rainfall away from the coasts. Coastal areas receive as much as 4,000 mm of rain year-round, while inland forests receive ca. 1,000 mm/year (Câmara, 2005). These features, combined with elevational gradients, resulted in high diversity and endemism for several groups of plants and animals (Goerck, 1997; Myers et al., 2000; Silva & Casteleti, 2005). Currently, most of the remaining lowland (below about 500 meters elevation) Atlantic Forest is represented by small (< 50 ha) and isolated fragments composed predominantly by secondary growth in early to medium stages of succession (Ribeiro et al., 2009). Large fragments almost entirely remained in locations where steep terrains made human occupation particularly difficult (Silva et al., 2007).

Among the largest and best-preserved blocks of Atlantic Forests are montane and submontane forests in northern Espírito Santo and southern Bahia, Brazil (Ribeiro et al., 2009). Land cover in the region is a mosaic of native forest patches and areas of shade cocoa plantations interspersed with low-yield pastures, small farms and large forestry properties, the latter established mainly in the last three decades. Southern Bahia is the country’s main cocoa (Theobroma cacao) production area (Alger & Caldas, 1996; May & Rocha, 1996; Cerqueira Neto, 2012). Nearly 70% of its cocoa production originates from the agroforestry system locally known as cabruca (Araújo et al., 1998), in which the cocoa trees, introduced from the Brazilian Amazon in 1746 (see Pacheco et al., 1996) replace the original understory and grow under the shade of a layer of native canopy species. This scenario is alarming since cabruca these poorly studied systems harbor great numbers of forest specialists (Pardini et al., 2009), including the Pink-legged Graveteiro (Acrobatornis fonsecai), a new genus and species unknown to science until the 1990s (Pacheco et al., 1996).

However, both the cocoa agroforests as forest remnants are still under intense threat. A severe socioeconomic crisis, caused by the devastation of cocoa farming by the Witches’ Broom Disease and the falling price of cocoa on the international market, has triggered a sharp rise in pressure on these areas. This has led to the clearing of forest remnants and the replacement of cabruca areas for crops that interrupted the landscape connectivity, such as coffee and pasture. The region also became a major focus of illegal trade in native wood of the Central Atlantic Forest Corridor leading to serious erosion of biodiversity of forest areas that have not been cleared. In addition to habitat loss, high levels of hunting and illegal extraction of palm heart result in loss of biodiversity (Fonseca et al., 2004).

The remaining forests of southern Bahia, although small, fragmented and inserted into a mosaic of secondary vegetation, harbor some of the highest levels of biodiversity and endemism on the planet (Silva & Casteleti, 2005). It is also unique in sharing lowland Amazonia-related taxa such as the Cinereous Antshrike Thamnomanes caesius and the Screaming Piha Lipaugus vociferans (Aguiar et al., 2005). Although vegetation of this region is still poorly known from a floristic viewpoint, recent studies demonstrate extraordinary biological richness and species endemism (Thomas et al., 1998; Thomas, 2003). For this reason, it is one of the areas of highest priority within the Central Corridor of the Atlantic Forest. To reinforce its biological importance and high rates of endemism, the scientific crew created by the Ministry of the Environment to identify and propose areas for the creation of new protected areas recommended the creation of the Wildlife Refuge Serra do Baixão-Serra Bonita with an area of 33,000 hectares (Timmers, 2006).

According to the Instituto de Estudos Socioambientais do Sul da Bahia, Una-Serra do Baixão, which encompass the Serra Bonita complex, has a total area of 330,295 hectares. There are only two federal protected areas within this forest continuum: Una Biological Reserve (recently expanded to 18,500 ha) and the Una Wildlife Refuge (23,400 ha). However, in its current form, the public system of protected areas is not enough to reverse this situation nor to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in the long term. The main factors are two-fold: (1) the absolute area of the integral protected region is inadequate and (2) the distribution of protected areas through geographic and biological viewpoints is irregular and are concentrated in the region of Una (Descobrimento, Monte Pascoal and Pau-Brasil national parks). Thus, there are significant gaps in the remaining mountains, particularly in sub montane rainforests. Current protected areas suffer severe staff and financial resources limitations to ensure their effective management and supervision and despite its expansion into 7,100 ha, the land tenure of more than 50% of the Una Biological Reserve is not regularized (Diniz da Cruz, pers. com.).

Considering that southern Bahia suffered a severe forest clearing in the state between 2015 and 2016 (SOS Mata Atlântica & INPE, 2017), protected areas are of paramount importance to biodiversity. Within this context, Private Natural Heritage Reserves (PNHR) become crucial to strengthen the public protected areas system by filling gaps, increasing absolute areas under protection, conserving unique unprotected habitats and increasing connectivity in the landscape (Pinto et al., 2004). Within the Serra do Baixão, Serra Bonita PNHR is a key core area that has a significant role in increasing the absolute area of the region under full protection including a significant portion of sub montane and montane forests, a unique habitat still not represented by public protected areas. Serra Bonita is also exceptionally important for bird conservation, considered an Important Bird Area (BA 23, BR 111), with globally threatened and range-restricted species (Bencke et al., 2006; IUCN, 2016). This is the third largest number of endangered and endemic species out of the 31 Important Bird Areas (IBA) in Bahia (Bencke et al., 2006). Serra Bonita represents > 50% of the total area of the protected PNHR in southern Bahia and the incorporation of 725 ha of land already acquired by third parties as well as the acquisition of 1,045 ha through the Instituto Uiraçu will eventually expand it area to 2,700 ha (V. Becker, pers. com.).

Hellmayr’s (1929) and Pinto’s (1935) are still the main authorities regarding the Bahian ornithological state of the art. Few recent studies have gathered significant information on birds from this state, including southern Bahia (Gonzaga et al., 1995; Silveira et al., 2005). The absence of a state-level threatened species list is a consequence of the lack of studies within this region. Despite its biological representativeness, there are still significant gaps in knowledge of faunal groups, particularly regarding terrestrial vertebrates. Since the knowledge of composition of groups of vertebrates in any given area is a prime factor to define measures for their conservation (Heyer et al., 1994), the implementation of targeted and applied studies on amphibians, mammals and birds of the Serra Bonita and its surroundings proves decisive for the success of the area to conserve biodiversity in the long term. We surveyed the birds of Serra Bonita to provide basic elements for defining and monitoring measures to significantly enhance the ornithological knowledge of this PNHR.


Serra Bonita PNHR is located south of Una-Serra do Baixão, in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau Brasil, southeastern Bahia, northeastern Brazil (Fig. 1). A significant part of this IBA, which has ca. 7,500 ha, is included in PNHR Serra Bonita I, II, III and IV, forming a 2,700 ha forest block. Well-preserved forests cover the elevational gradient (from 200 to 950 m) of the mountains with rainforests richly covered in epiphytes. Above 600 m, there is frequent formation of dense fog, which renders montane forests a wetter aspect than the adjacent lowlands (BirdLife International, 2016). The latter include semideciduous forests whereas montane rainforests are typically found on higher elevations. This whole area is part of a mountain range that stands out in the landscape of south-eastern Bahia, contiguous to Serra das Lontras (currently a National Park), Serra do Javi and Serra do Teimoso (BA 20 and BA 22, BirdLife International, 2016).

Figure 1 Location of Serra Bonita NHPR in northeast Brazil. 

Since 1980, authors have unsystematically surveyed birds at several farms that compose the Serra Bonita PNHR. We performed more concentrated efforts between 12-22 December 2010, when we visited two trails in Serra Bonita I (15°23’30”S, 39°34’06”W, alt. 930 m, and 15°23’44”S, 39°24’25”W, alt. 890 m) and two sites in Serra Bonita III (15°25’29” S, 39°32’31”W, alt. 174 m, and 15°25’06”S, 39°32’38”W, alt. 208 m). Lower elevations include Fazenda Paris and Santo Antônio (15°25’07”S, 39°32’44”W, alt. 268 m), part of the reserve. For five months (June-October 2017), one of us (CA) also walked all trails of all farms on a weekly basis. In those areas, we walked randomly at a constant speed of about 1.5 km/h on several environments to record the largest number of species possible. We visually identified birds with the aid of binoculars and recorded vocalizations with a TASCAM DR-40 and shotgun microphones. These are deposited at Seção de Aves do Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP), where we also deposited some collected specimens. We included non-systematic crepuscular observations to register nocturnal species.

We began transect counts ca. 15 minutes before sunrise and lingered, at the minimum, for 2 hours when weather conditions permitted, i.e., when there was no rain or intense winds. It allowed us to ensure that the detectability of the birds would not be significantly affected. We conducted surveys along trails, secondary growth and forest edges. The total number of census resulted in over 100 days. In addition, in 2010 we used 20-30 mist nets (12 m × 3 m, mesh 36 mm) along the same trails used for surveys. We opened mist nets, mounted at ground level, at 06h00 and closed them around 17h00 or earlier in accordance with climatic conditions. Standardization of capture effort is in accordance with the following equation: E=area.h.n (1), where E is capture effort, area corresponds to the area of each net (height multiplied by width), h is exposure time (number of hours multiplied by the number of days) and n is the number of nets. We expressed results in h.m² (Roos, 2010) and accumulated 19,584 h.m² of net effort. We followed Straube’s et al. (2010) suggestions for the standardization of environmental impact studies surveys, which also apply for our own objectives. Hence, database (rather than secondary data) are records from literature and museums (and in this case, previous visits by CA, LFS, JFP and BMW to Serra Bonita). In addition, we searched and critically revised Wikiaves ( database from Serra Bonita private reserve and Camacan and Pau Brasil municipalities as of 12 December 2018 which resulted in some additions to the species list. We obtained field data, synonymous with primary data, in situ.

We used a Jaccard similarity index to compare species richness similarity between highlands and lowlands based on species present on both environments, as follows: J'=ca+b+c (2), where J’ is the actual index, a equals the number of exclusive species on a given site, b equals the number of exclusive species on a different given site and c equals the number of shared species between sites (Krebs, 1999). Taxonomic arrangements follow the most recent list of the Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos (Piacentini et al., 2015).


We recorded a total of 368 species, 276 at Serra Bonita (I and III) and 244 at Fazenda Paris (as well as another 56 only on surroundings). This corresponds to 45% of all bird species of the state of Bahia (Souza & Borges, 2008). As of 12 December 2018, the Wikiaves site reported one species from Pau Brasil and 258 species from Camacan, including three species we had not recorded in situ: Pseudoseisura cristata, Progne chalybea and Tangara brasiliensis. Combined with colleagues’ records, Serra Bonita is the stronghold for 371 species of birds. Of this total, 13 species are under threat categories in Brazil (ICMBio, 2016), and as many as 16 species are either globally vulnerable or endangered (Appendix; IUCN, 2016).

Some 67 (18%) species recorded at Serra Bonita PNHR are Atlantic Forest endemic species according to Bencke et al. (2006; Appendix). If one includes subspecies, then another 143 are Atlantic forest endemic taxa, in which case Serra Bonita harbors 108 taxa exclusive to this domain. Of these, the Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus olivaceus, inhabits southern Bahia only, and another six subspecies are threatened in Brazil. Because IUCN does not yet denote global extinction risk at the subspecies level, we call attention for a major gap in the knowledge of such taxa, which should be the objective of future taxonomic revisions.

We detected 93 (25%) species exclusively in the highlands (above 500 m), while 61 (22%) were only recorded in lowlands. The similarity index between the bird community in distinct elevational ranges was J’ = 0.54, with 183 shared species.


Serra Bonita PNHR is the single locality with the highest species richness in all available inventories in Bahia. Not only the absolute number of species is remarkable, but also the percentage of endemic and threatened species has no parallel in the state (see Pinto, 1993; Gonzaga et al., 1995; Parrini et al., 1999; Silveira et al., 2005; Laps, 2006; Vasconcelos et al., 2012; Morante-Filho et al., 2015, 2016, 2018). From southern Bahia south to northern Rio de Janeiro, the lowlands harbor Amazonia-related taxa, whereas, in the highlands, Atlantic Forest-related elements are typically found (e.g.,Willis & Oniki 2002; Silveira et al., 2005; Mallet-Rodrigues et al., 2010). Serra Bonita is no exception. Lowland Amazonian taxa include Thamnomanes caesius and Lipaugus vociferans. Like Serra das Lontras (Silveira et al., 2005), the entire elevational gradient, which in Serra Bonita is largely preserved, is necessary to maintain this biodiversity.

Due to the continuity and preservation of these forests, Serra Bonita PNHR may be a promising location to find some rare and threatened Atlantic Forest endemic taxa not yet recorded. In Bahia such species can be found almost exclusively at Una Biological Reserve or Pau-Brasil/Trancoso, Monte Pascoal and Descobrimento National Parks, situated within a 100 km radius (e.g.,Laps, 2006), such as the Red-billed Curassow Crax blumenbachii. At Serra Bonita NHPR recent records of the Harpy Eagle Harpia harpyja, with breeding pairs and still relatively common in Amazonia but now very rare in the Atlantic forest (Galetti et al., 1997) also indicate the pristine conditions of local forests. There are a few recent records from southern Bahia as well, such as Serra das Lontras (Silveira et al., 2005), Estação Experimental Pau-Brasil, municipality of Porto Seguro, and a photograph of a young Harpy Eagle at Serra Bonita I (Sánchez-Lalinde et al., 2011). At Serra Bonita, V. Becker sighted a couple on forest border August 2015, and saw one individual close to the research facility August 2016. LFS also heard one individual calling at Fazenda Santa Antônio in May 2016 and an active nest was discovered in February 2018 (V. Becker, pers. comm.). We found as fairly common in the highlands a treehunter Heliobletus sp. which is being scientifically described (Whitney et al. in prep.). The taxon also occurs at Serra das Lontras (Silveira et al., 2005) and is only found at higher elevations. This isolated population is currently under description and will be endemic to these southern Bahian mountains.

For harboring the greatest species richness, Atlantic Forest endemic species and globally threatened birds in Bahia, and because even more endemic and threatened species are likely to be found with increasing surveys, we urge that unprotected areas surrounding Serra Bonita be immediately incorporated into a permanent protection conservation unit. This act will enhance the survival of this entire ecosystem, already almost completely extirpated and fragmented, found nowhere else on Earth. In addition, cabrucas support high species richness of birds but do not act as surrogates for intact forests. The presence and representativeness of some forest species seem to depend on the existence of nearby native forests (Faria et al., 2006, 2007; Pardini et al., 2009). Pacheco et al. (1996) recognized the dire interface of cocoa growers in southern Bahia being forced to abandon their livelihoods in favor of cutting old cabruca canopies and planting other crops (such as bananas and coffee) with preservation of forests. To the point, they called for the immediate preservation of two blocks of land covering the elevational range from the lowlands to the tops of the highest peaks, one in the Serra das Lontras and the other in the Serra Bonita. As integral parts of the conservation plan, they recommended inclusion of extensive blocks of cabruca canopies; removal of the introduced cocoa trees; and planting of native seedling trees while ancient native “shade” trees were still present and dropping seeds annually. They further recommended that local people, especially large land owners, be integrally involved in the creation and maintenance of these forest reserves. Now, some 20 years later, good progress has been made in both the Serra das Lontras and Serra Bonita, and we still have the chance to follow through with these important directives.


Our special thanks to Vitor and Clemira Beker (Instituto Uiraçu) for their vital work in preserving one of the most important fragments of Atlantic Forest in Bahia state. The Fundação O Boticario de Proteção à Natureza funded part of this research. VC received field equipment from IdeaWild. We also thank the Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio) for collecting permits and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for the grants and financial support to LFS.


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Souza, D.G.S. & Borges, O.B. 2008. Lista das aves do Estado da Bahia. Available at: Available at: . Access in: 10/02/2018. [ Links ]

Straube, F.C.; Vasconcelos, M.F.; Urben-Filho, A. & Cândido-Jr., J.F. 2010. Protocolo mínimo para levantamentos de avifauna em Estudos de Impacto Ambiental. In: Matter, S.; Straube, F.C.; Accordi, I.; Piacentini, V. & Cândido-Jr., J.F. (Orgs.). Ornitologia e Conservação. Ciência aplicada, técnicas de pesquisa e levantamento. Rio de Janeiro, Technical Books . p. 237-254. [ Links ]

Thomas, W.M.; Carvalho, A.M.V.; Amorim, A.M.A.; Garrison, J.; Arbeláez, A.L. 1998. Plant endemism in two forests in Southern Bahia, Brazil. Biodiversity & Conservation, 7: 311-322. [ Links ]

Thomas, W.W. 2003. Natural vegetation types in southern Bahia. In: Prado, P.I.; Landau, E.C.; Moura, R.T.; Pinto, L.P.S.; Fonseca, G.A.B & Alger, K. (Orgs.). Corredor da biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica do sul da Bahia. Ilhéus, IESB/IESB/CI/CABS/UFMG/UNICAMP. [Publicação em CD ROM]. [ Links ]

Timmers, J.F. 2006. Equipe Técnico-científica para ampliação da Rede de Unidades de Conservação de Proteção Integral no Baixo Sul, Sul e Extremo Sul da Bahia. Propostas Consolidadas de Ampliação e Criação de Unidades de Conservação no Baixo Sul, Sul e Extremo Sul da Bahia. Projeto (FAO) GCP/BRA/061/WBK Contrato № 2005/384. [Relatório não publicado] [ Links ]

Vasconcelos, M.F.; Souza, L.N.; Duca, C.; Pacheco, J.F.; Parrini, R.; Serpa, G.A.; Albano, C.; Abreu, C.R.M.; Santos, S.S. & Fonseca-Neto, F.P. 2012. The avifauna of Brejinho das Ametistas, Bahia, Brazil: birds in a caatinga-cerrado transitional zone, with comments on taxonomy and biogeography. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 20: 246-267. [ Links ]

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Published with the financial support of the Committee of "Programa de Apoio às Publicações Científicas Periódicas da USP" (SIBi-USP)


List of bird taxa recorded within Serra Bonita. Subspecific nomenclature are tentatively placed according to location and follow Piacentini et al. (2015) and MZUSP data when specimens are available. An asterisk indicates a taxa endemic of Atlantic Forest (n = 143). Paris and Santo Antônio Farms (< 500 m) and Serra Bonita I and III (> 500 m); S stands for surroundings. Acronyms refer to authors who recorded some species during initial observations. WA indicates records deposited online. The last two columns refer to endangered taxa globally (IUCN) and in Brazil (ICMBio).

Taxa English name < 500 m > 500 m S WA IUCN ICMBio
Tinamus solitarius* Solitary Tinamou x
Crypturellus soui albigularis Little Tinamou x jfp x
Crypturellus o. obsoletus* Brown Tinamou lfs x x
Crypturellus tataupa lepidotus Tataupa Tinamou x
Rhynchotus r. rufescens Red-winged Tinamou x
Cairina moschata Muscovy Duck x
Amazonetta b. brasiliensis Brazilian Teal x x
Penelope superciliaris jacupemba Rusty-margined Guan x x
Ortalis araucuan* East Brazilian Chachalaca x x
Odontophorus c. capueira* Spot-winged Wood-Quail x
Tachybaptus dominicus brachyrhynchus Least Grebe x
Podilymbus podiceps antarcticus Pied-billed Grebe x
Nannopterum b. brasilianus Neotropic Cormorant x
Tigrisoma lineatum marmoratum Rufescent Tiger-Heron x x
Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli Black-crowned Night-Heron x
Butorides s. striata Striated Heron x
Bubulcus i. ibis Cattle Egret x
Ardea cocoi Cocoi Heron x
Ardea alba egretta Great Egret x
Pilherodius pileatus Capped Heron x x
Egretta t. thula Snowy Egret x
Cathartes aura ruficollis Turkey Vulture x x x
Cathartes burrovianus urubutinga Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture x x x
Coragyps atratus brasiliensis Black Vulture x x x
Sarcoramphus papa King Vulture x x x
Leptodon cayanensis Gray-headed Kite x
Elanoides forficatus ssp. Swallow-tailed Kite x jfp
Harpagus diodon Rufous-thighed Kite x x
Ictinia plumbea Plumbeous Kite x x
Geranospiza caerulescens gracilis Crane Hawk x x
Heterospizias meridionalis Savanna Hawk x
Urubitinga u. urubitinga Great Black Hawk x
Rupornis magnirostris nattereri Roadside Hawk x lfs x
Geranoaetus a. albicaudatus White-tailed Hawk x lfs x
Pseudastur polionotus Mantled Hawk x x x
Buteo nitidus pallidus Gray-lined Hawk x
Buteo albonotatus Zone-tailed Hawk x x x
Harpia harpyja Harpy Eagle x VU
Spizaetus t. tyrannus Black Hawk-Eagle x x x
Spizaetus melanoleucus Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle x x
Spizaetus o. ornatus Ornate Hawk-Eagle jfp
Aramides cajaneus Gray-necked Wood-Rail x
Aramides saracura* Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail jfp
Amaurolimnas concolor castaneus Uniform Crake x x
Laterallus m. melanophaius Rufous-sided Crake x
Mustelirallus a. albicollis Ash-throated Crake x x
Pardirallus n. nigricans Blackish Rail x
Gallinula g. galeata Common Gallinule lfs x
Porphyrio martinicus Purple Gallinule x x
Vanellus chilensis lampronotus Southern Lapwing lfs x
Gallinago p. paraguaiae South American Snipe x
Gallinago undulata gigantea Giant Snipe x
Jacana j. jacana Wattled Jacana lfs lfs x
Columbina t. talpacoti Ruddy Ground-Dove lfs lfs x
Claravis pretiosa Blue Ground-Dove x x
Patagioenas speciosa Scaled Pigeon x jfp x
Patagioenas picazuro marginalis Picazuro Pigeon x
Patagioenas p. plumbea* Plumbeous Pigeon x x x
Leptotila verreauxi decipiens White-tipped Dove x x
Leptotila rufaxilla bahiae Gray-fronted Dove x x x
Geotrygon m. montana Ruddy Quail-Dove x x x
Piaya cayana macroura Squirrel Cuckoo x x x
Coccyzus euleri Pearly-breasted Cuckoo x x
Crotophaga ani Smooth-billed Ani x lfs
Guira guira Guira Cuckoo x lfs
Tapera n. naevia Striped Cuckoo x jfp x
Tyto furcata tuidara American Barn Owl x
Megascops choliba decussatus Tropical Screech-Owl x x x
Megascops atricapilla* Black-capped Screech-Owl x x x
Pulsatrix perspicillata pulsatrix* Spectacled Owl x x
Strix virgata borelliana* Mottled Owl x x x
Strix huhula albomarginata* Black-banded Owl x
Glaucidium minutissimum* Least Pygmy-Owl x x x
Glaucidium b. brasilianum Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl x lfs x
Athene cunicularia grallaria Burrowing Owl x
Nyctibius g. grandis Great Potoo x x
Nyctibius a. aethereus* Long-tailed Potoo x
Nyctibius g. griseus Common Potoo x x
Nyctiphrynus o. ocellatus Ocellated Poorwill x x
Lurocalis semitorquatus nattereri Short-tailed Nighthawk x x x
Nyctidromus a. albicollis Common Pauraque x x x
Hydropsalis t. torquata Scissor-tailed Nightjar x
Streptoprocne z. zonaris White-collared Swift x x x
Chaetura c. cinereiventris* Gray-rumped Swift x x x
Chaetura meridionalis Sick’s Swift jfp
Panyptila c. cayennensis Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift x x x
Glaucis dohrnii* Hook-billed Hermit x x x EN EN
Glaucis h. hirsutus Rufous-breasted Hermit x x x
Phaethornis squalidus* Dusky-throated Hermit jfp
Phaethornis ruber pygmaeus Reddish Hermit x x x
Phaethornis e. eurynome* Scale-throated Hermit lfs x x
Eupetomena macroura simoni Swallow-tailed Hummingbird x x x
Aphantochroa cirrochloris Sombre Hummingbird x x
Florisuga fusca Black Jacobin x x
Anthracothorax nigricollis Black-throated Mango x x x
Lophornis magnificus Frilled Coquette x x
Discosura l. langsdorffi* Black-bellied Thorntail x x
Chlorestes n. notata Blue-chinned Sapphire x x
Chlorostilbon lucidus pucherani Glittering-bellied Emerald jfp x x
Thalurania glaucopis* Violet-capped Woodnymph x x x
Hylocharis sapphirina Rufous-throated Sapphire x x
Hylocharis c. cyanus* White-chinned Sapphire x jfp
Amazilia l. lactea Sapphire-spangled Emerald x
Heliodoxa rubricauda* Brazilian Ruby x x
Heliothryx auritus auriculatus Black-eared Fairy x x x
Calliphlox amethystina Amethyst Woodstar x x
Trogon viridis melanopterus* Green-backed Trogon x x x
Trogon s. surrucura Surucua Trogon x x
Trogon rufus chrysochloros* Black-throated Trogon x x
Megaceryle t. torquata Ringed Kingfisher x
Chloroceryle amazona Amazon Kingfisher x EN
Chloroceryle a. americana Green Kingfisher x
Galbula ruficauda rufoviridis Rufous-tailed Jacamar x jfp x
Notharchus swainsoni* Buff-bellied Puffbird x x x
Nystalus maculatus Spot-backed Puffbird x lfs
Malacoptila s. striata* Crescent-chested Puffbird x x
Monasa m. morphoeus White-fronted Nunbird x x
Chelidoptera tenebrosa brasiliensis* Swallow-winged Puffbird x jfp x
Ramphastos vitellinus ariel Channel-billed Toucan x x x
Ramphastos dicolorus* lfs
Selenidera maculirostris* Spot-billed Toucanet x x x
Pteroglossus bailloni* Saffron Toucanet x jfp x
Pteroglossus a. aracari Black-necked Aracari x x x
Picumnus exilis* Bahia Piculet x x x
Picumnus pygmaeus Spotted Piculet x x x
Picumnus albosquamatus guttifer White-wedged Piculet x x x
Melanerpes candidus White Woodpecker x x
Melanerpes flavifrons* Yellow-fronted Woodpecker x lfs x
Veniliornis a. affinis* Red-stained Woodpecker x x x
Piculus flavigula erythropis* Yellow-throated Woodpecker x x x
Piculus polyzonus* Atlantic Woodpecker x x EN
Colaptes melanochloros nattereri Green-barred Woodpecker x
Celeus torquatus tynnunculus* Ringed Woodpecker x x
Celeus f. flavescens* Blond-crested Woodpecker x x
Celeus flavus subflavus Cream-colored Woodpecker x x
Dryocopus l. lineatus Lineated Woodpecker x lfs x
Caracara plancus Southern Caracara x x x
Milvago c. chimachima Yellow-headed Caracara x lfs
Herpetotheres c. cachinnans Laughing Falcon x jfp x
Micrastur r. ruficollis Barred Forest-Falcon x x
Micrastur s. semitorquatus Collared Forest-Falcon x jfp x
Falco sparverius cearae American Kestrel x x
Falco rufigularis ophryophanes Bat Falcon x lfs
Falco peregrinus ssp. Peregrine Falcon jfp
Primolius maracana Blue-winged Macaw x
Psittacara l. leucophthalmus White-eyed Parakeet x
Aratinga auricapillus Golden-capped Parakeet x x x
Eupsittula aurea Peach-fronted Parakeet x lfs x
Pyrrhura cruentata* Ochre-marked Parakeet x x EN
Pyrrhura f. frontalis* Maroon-bellied Parakeet x x x
Pyrrhura leucotis* Maroon-faced Parakeet x jfp x VU
Forpus xanthopterygius Blue-winged Parrotlet x x
Brotogeris tirica* Plain Parakeet x x
Touit melanonotus* Brown-backed Parrotlet x x x EN VU
Touit surdus* Golden-tailed Parrotlet x x x VU VU
Pionopsitta pileata* Pileated Parrot x x
Pionus m. maximiliani Scaly-headed Parrot x x
Amazona rhodocorytha* Red-browed Parrot x VU
Terenura maculata* Streak-capped Antwren x
Myrmotherula axillaris luctuosa* White-flanked Antwren x lfs x
Myrmotherula minor* Salvadori’s Antwren x x VU VU
Thamnomanes c. caesius* Cinereous Antshrike x x x
Rhopias gularis* Star-throated Antwren x x
Dysithamnus stictothorax* Spot-breasted Antvireo x x
Dysithamnus m. mentalis* Plain Antvireo jfp
Dysithamnus plumbeus* Plumbeous Antvireo x x x VU
Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus scapularis* Rufous-winged Antwren x x x
Thamnophilus torquatus Rufous-winged Antshrike x x
Thamnophilus palliatus vestitus* Chestnut-backed Antshrike x x x
Taraba major stagurus Great Antshrike x x
Hypoedaleus guttatus* Spot-backed Antshrike x x x
Mackenziaena severa* Tufted Antshrike x x
Myrmoderus loricatus* White-bibbed Antbird x x
Pyriglena leucoptera* White-shouldered Fire-eye x x x
Cercomacra brasiliana* Rio de Janeiro Antbird x
Drymophila ferruginea* Ferruginous Antbird x x
Drymophila ochropyga* Ochre-rumped Antbird x x
Drymophila squamata stictocorypha* Scaled Antbird x x x
Conopophaga l. lineata Rufous Gnateater x x
Scytalopus aff. gonzagai* Boa Nova Tapaculo lfs x
Grallaria varia intercedens* Variegated Antpitta x x
Formicarius colma ruficeps* Rufous-capped Antthrush x lfs x
Chamaeza c. campanisona* Short-tailed Antthrush x x
Chamaeza meruloides* Such’s Antthrush x x
Dendrocincla turdina* Plain-winged Woodcreeper x x x
Sittasomus griseicapillus olivaceus* Olivaceous Woodcreeper x lfs x
Xiphorhynchus fuscus tenuirostris* Lesser Woodcreeper x x x
Xiphorhynchus g. guttatus* Buff-throated Woodcreeper x jfp x
Campylorhamphus falcularius* Black-billed Scythebill x x
Campylorhamphus t. trochilirostris* Red-billed Scythebill x x
Lepidocolaptes squamatus* lfs
Dendrocolaptes platyrostris Planalto Woodcreeper x x x
Xiphocolaptes albicollis bahiae* White-throated Woodcreeper x x x
Xenops m. minutus* Plain Xenops x x
Xenops r. rutilans* Streaked Xenops x x x
Furnarius f. figulus Wing-banded Hornero x jfp x
Furnarius rufus albogularis Rufous Hornero x lfs
Lochmias n. nematura Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper x
Automolus l. leucophthalmus* White-eyed Foliage-gleaner x x x
Anabazenops fuscus* White-collared Foliage-gleaner x x
Anabacerthia lichtensteini* Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner x x
Philydor atricapillus* Black-capped Foliage-gleaner x x
Heliobletus sp. nov.* Bahia Treehunter x x
Cichlocolaptes l. leucophrus* Pale-browed Treehunter x x x
Pseudoseisura cristata Caatinga Cacholote x
Phacellodomus r. rufifrons Rufous-fronted Thornbird x lfs
Certhiaxis cinnamomeus russeolus Yellow-chinned Spinetail x x
Synallaxis cinerea* Bahia Spinetail x x VU
Synallaxis frontalis Sooty-fronted Spinetail x x
Synallaxis spixi Spix’s Spinetail x x
Acrobatornis fonsecai* Pink-legged Graveteiro x x x VU
Cranioleuca pallida* Pallid Spinetail x x
Thripophaga macroura* Striated Softtail x x VU
Ceratopipra rubrocapilla Red-headed Manakin x x x
Manacus manacus gutturosus* White-bearded Manakin x x x
Machaeropterus regulus* Striped Manakin x x x
Ilicura militaris* Pin-tailed Manakin lfs x x
Chiroxiphia p. pareola Blue-backed Manakin jfp
Chiroxiphia caudata* Swallow-tailed Manakin x x
Oxyruncus c. cristatus* Sharpbill x x
Myiobius atricaudus ridgwayi* lfs
Schiffornis t. turdina Trush-like Schiffornis lfs
Iodopleura p. pipra* Buff-throated Purpletuft lfs x x
Tityra i. inquisitor Black-crowned Tityra x x
Tityra cayana braziliensis Black-tailed Tityra x jfp x
Pachyramphus v. viridis Green-backed Becard x x x
Pachyramphus c. castaneus* Chestnut-crowned Becard x x
Pachyramphus m. marginatus* Black-capped Becard x x x
Pachyramphus v. validus Crested Becard jfp
Phibalura flavirostris* Swallow-tailed Cotinga x x
Pyroderus s. scutatus* Red-ruffed Fruitcrow x
Lipaugus lanioides* Cinnamon-vented Piha x x x
Procnias nudicollis* Bare-throated Bellbird x x x VU
Cotinga maculata* Banded Cotinga x x EN CR
Xipholena atropurpurea* White-winged Cotinga x jfp x EN VU
Platyrinchus mystaceus cancromus White-throated Spadebill x x x
Mionectes o. oleagineus Ochre-bellied Flycatcher x x x
Leptopogon a. amaurocephalus Sepia-capped Flycatcher x x x
Phylloscartes beckeri* Bahia Tyrannulet x x EN EN
Phylloscartes sylviolus* Bay-ringed Tyrannulet jfp
Rhynchocyclus o. olivaceus Olivaceous Flatbill x x x
Tolmomyias sulphurescens pallescens Yellow-olive Flycatcher x x
Tolmomyias poliocephalus sclateri Gray-crowned Flycatcher x jfp x
Tolmomyias f. flaviventris Yellow-breasted Flycatcher x lfs x
Todirostrum poliocephalum* Gray-headed Tody-Flycatcher lfs x
Todirostrum cinereum coloreum Common Tody-Flycatcher x jfp
Myiornis auricularis cinereicollis* Eared Pygmy-Tyrant x lfs x
Hemitriccus diops* Drab-breasted Pygmy-Tyrant x x
Hemitriccus furcatus* Fork-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant x x VU VU
Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa Cliff Flycatcher x x x
Tyranniscus burmeisteri Rough-legged Tyrannulet x x
Ornithion inerme White-lored Tyrannulet x x
Camptostoma obsoletum cinerascens Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet x x
Elaenia f. flavogaster Yellow-bellied Elaenia x x
Elaenia spectabilis Large Elaenia x
Elaenia chilensis Chilean Elaenia x x
Elaenia mesoleuca Olivaceous Elaenia x
Myiopagis c. caniceps Gray Elaenia x x
Capsiempis f. flaveola Yellow Tyrannulet x x x
Phyllomyias fasciatus brevirostris* Planalto Tyrannulet x x x
Phyllomyias griseocapilla* Gray-capped Tyrannulet x x
Attila rufus hellmayri* Gray-hooded Attila x x x
Attila spadiceus uropygiatus* Bright-rumped Attila x jfp x
Legatus l. leucophaius Piratic Flycatcher x x
Ramphotrigon m. megacephalum* Large-headed Flatbill x x
Myiarchus t. tuberculifer Dusky-capped Flycatcher x x
Myiarchus s. swainsoni Swainson’s Flycatcher jfp
Myiarchus f. ferox Short-crested Flycatcher x x
Myiarchus tyrannulus bahiae Brown-crested Flycatcher lfs
Sirystes s. sibilator Sibilant Sirystes x x
Rhytipterna s. simplex* Grayish Mourner x x x
Pitangus sulphuratus maximiliani Great Kiskadee x x x
Philohydor l. lictor Lesser Kiskadee x x
Machetornis r. rixosa Cattle Tyrant x
Myiodynastes maculatus solitarius Streaked Flycatcher x x
Megarynchus p. pitangua Boat-billed Flycatcher x x
Myiozetetes similis pallidiventris Social Flycatcher x x x
Tyrannus melancholicus despotes Tropical Kingbird x x x
Empidonomus varius rufinus Variegated Flycatcher x x x
Conopias t. trivirgatus* Three-striped Flycatcher lfs x x
Colonia c. colonus Long-tailed Tyrant x x
Myiophobus fasciatus flammiceps Bran-colored Flycatcher x x
Fluvicola n. nengeta Masked Water-Tyrant x jfp x
Arundinicola leucocephala White-headed Marsh Tyrant x x
Cnemotriccus f. fuscatus* Fuscous Flycatcher lfs
Lathrotriccus e. euleri Euler’s Flycatcher x x x
Contopus cooperi Olive-sided Flycatcher x x
Contopus c. cinereus* Tropical Pewee x x x
Cyclarhis gujanensis cearensis Rufous-browed Peppershrike x x x
Hylophilus t. thoracicus* Lemon-chested Greenlet x x
Vireo chivi agilis Chivi Vireo x x
Pygochelidon c. cyanoleuca Blue-and-white Swallow x x x
Stelgidopteryx r. ruficollis Southern Rough-winged Swallow x x
Progne t. tapera Brown-chested Martin x jfp lfs x
Progne s. subis Purple Martin x
Progne chalybea macrorhamphus Gray-breasted Martin x x x
Tachycineta albiventer White-winged Swallow x
Troglodytes m. musculus Southern House Wren x x x
Campylorhynchus t. turdinus Thrush-like Wren x x x
Pheugopedius g. genibarbis Moustached Wren x x x
Donacobius a. atricapilla Black-capped Donacobius x jfp x
Ramphocaenus m. melanurus* Long-billed Gnatwren x
Cichlopsis l. leucogenys* Rufous-brown Solitaire lfs x x
Turdus f. flavipes* Yellow-legged Thrush x x x
Turdus l. leucomelas Pale-breasted Thrush x x
Turdus r. rufiventris Rufous-bellied Thrush x x x
Turdus amaurochalinus Creamy-bellied Thrush x
Turdus albicollis crotopezus* White-necked Thrush x x x
Mimus saturninus arenaceus Chalk-browed Mockingbird x
Zonotrichia capensis matutina Rufous-collared Sparrow x lfs
Arremon t. taciturnus Pectoral Sparrow x x x
Setophaga p. pitiayumi Tropical Parula x x
Setophaga striata Blackpoll Warbler x
Geothlypis aequinoctialis velata Masked Yellowthroat jfp
Basileuterus culicivorus auricapilla Golden-crowned Warbler x x x
Myiothlypis rivularis* Neotropical River Warbler lfs x
Psarocolius d. decumanus Crested Oropendola x jfp x
Cacicus haemorrhous affinis Red-rumped Cacique x x x
Cacicus c. cela Yellow-rumped Cacique x lfs x
Icterus jamacaii Campo Troupial x x
Gnorimopsar chopi sulcirostris Chopi Blackbird lfs x
Chrysomus ruficapillus frontalis Chestnut-capped Blackbird x
Molothrus o. oryzivorus Giant Cowbird x lfs x
Molothrus b. bonariensis Shiny Cowbird x jfp lfs
Sturnella superciliaris White-browed Meadowlark x x
Pipraeidea m. melanonota Fawn-breasted Tanager lfs x x
Cissopis leverianus major Magpie Tanager x x x
Paroaria dominicana Red-cowled Cardinal x
Tangara brasiliensis* White-bellied Tanager x
Tangara cyanomelas* Silver-breasted Tanager x jfp x
Tangara seledon* Green-headed Tanager x x x
Tangara cyanocephala corallina* Red-necked Tanager x x
Tangara s. sayaca Sayaca Tanager x x
Tangara cyanoptera* Azure-shouldered Tanager x x
Tangara p. palmarum Palm Tanager x x x
Tangara ornata* Golden-chevroned Tanager lfs x x
Tangara cayana flava Burnished-buff Tanager x x
Nemosia pileata caerulea Hooded Tanager x jfp
Conirostrum s. speciosum Chestnut-vented Conebill x lfs
Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis Saffron Finch x x
Haplospiza unicolor* Uniform Finch x x
Chlorophanes spiza axillaris* Green Honeycreeper x x x
Hemithraupis flavicollis melanoxantha* Yellow-backed Tanager x lfs
Hemithraupis ruficapilla bahiae* Rufous-headed Tanager x x
Volatinia j. jacarina Blue-black Grassquit x lfs x
Coryphospingus pileatus Pileated Finch jfp
Lanio cristatus brunneus Flame-crested Tanager x x x
Tachyphonus rufus White-lined Tanager lfs
Ramphocelus bresilius dorsalis* Brazilian Tanager x x lfs x
Tersina v. viridis Swallow Tanager x x x
Cyanerpes cyaneus holti* Red-legged Honeycreeper x x x
Dacnis nigripes* Black-legged Dacnis x x
Dacnis cayana paraguayensis Blue Dacnis x x x
Coereba flaveola chloropyga Bananaquit x x x
Tiaris fuliginosus Sooty Grassquit lfs x x
Sporophila frontalis* Buffy-fronted Seedeater x x VU
Sporophila falcirostris* Temminck’s Seedeater x x x VU
Sporophila n. nigricollis Yellow-bellied Seedeater x x
Sporophila ardesiaca Dubois’s Seedeater x x x
Sporophila c. caerulescens Double-collared Seedeater x jfp x
Sporophila albogularis White-throated Seedeater x x
Sporophila leucoptera cinereola White-bellied Seedeater x jfp
Emberizoides h. herbicola Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch x x
Saltator m. maximus Buff-throated Saltator x x x
Saltator s. similis lfs
Saltator fuliginosus Black-throated Grosbeak x x
Habia rubica bahiae* Red-crowned Ant-Tanager x x x
Caryothraustes brasiliensis* Yellow-green Grosbeak x x x
Euphonia c. chlorotica Purple-throated Euphonia x lfs x
Euphonia violacea aurantiicollis* Violaceous Euphonia x x x
Euphonia c. cyanocephala Golden-rumped Euphonia x x
Euphonia x. xanthogaster* Orange-bellied Euphonia x x x
Euphonia pectoralis* Chestnut-bellied Euphonia x x x
Chlorophonia c. cyanea* Blue-naped Chlorophonia x x
Passer domesticus House Sparrow lfs x

Recibido: 28 de Mayo de 2018; Aprobado: 21 de Enero de 2019

Edited by: Carlos José Einicker Lamas

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