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On-line version ISSN 1806-907X
Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. vol.55 no.4 Campinas July/Aug. 2005
Strictu sensu post-graduation in anesthesiology: experience of ten years at Universidade Estadual Paulista*
Pos-graduación stricto sensu en anestesiología: experiencia de diez años en la UNESP
José Reinaldo Cerqueira Braz, TSA, M.D.I; Pedro Thadeu Galvão Vianna, TSA, M.D.I; Yara Marcondes Machado Castiglia, TSA, M.D.I; Luiz Antonio Vane, TSA, M.D.I; Flávio Massone, M.D.II; Lino Lemonica, TSA, M.D.III; Gladys Bastos de Castro, M.D.IV
IProfessor Titular da UNESP, Departamento
de Anestesiologia da FMB
IIProfessor Titular Aposentado da UNESP, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anestesiologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (FMVZ)
IIIProfessor Assistente Doutor da UNESP, Departamento de Anestesiologia da FMB
IVProfessora Assistente Doutora Aposentada da UNESP, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anestesiologia Veterinária da FMVZ
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are
still few strictu sensu Post-Graduation Programs in Anesthesiology in Brazil.
Aiming at fostering post-graduation in Anesthesiology in Brazil, we present
the experience of ten years at Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP).
CONTENTS: Strictu sensu post-graduation program in Anesthesiology - UNESP was accredited by CAPES since its beginning in 1994, for Master and Doctoral programs. The program is developed around three fields of study: Organs and Systems Risk and Protection in Anesthesia and Surgery; Quality and Safety in Anesthesiology; and Clinical and Experimental Models for Pain Therapy, with their respective 14 research lines. The number of regular students is compatible with the number of faculty advisers (12), with three students per adviser in average. From its beginning to September 2004, there were 45 Master and 24 Doctoral reports, in a total of 69 presentations, most of them with scholarships and funding granted by Research Fostering Agencies. After receiving their doctor's degree, 65% of students dedicate themselves to teaching and researching in Brazilian public and private universities. Most studies are published in Qualis A Brazilian journals with a lower number of publications in international Qualis A or B journals. The program was scored 4.0 by CAPES, in a scale from 1 to 7, in its three most recent evaluations.
CONCLUSIONS: The program has positively evolved throughout its 10 years of existence and major objectives have been reached, such as qualification of professors and investigators in Anesthesiology for Brazilian universities.
Key Words: ANESTHESIOLOGY: Post-graduation
JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El número
de Programas de Pos-graduación en Anestesiología stricto sensu
existente en el país aún es muy pequeño. Con la finalidad de
incentivar la pos-graduación en Anestesiología en Brasil, se presenta
la experiencia acumulada en diez años de actividades del programa de la
Universidad Estadual Paulista (UNESP).
CONTENIDO: El Programa de Pos-graduación en Anestesiología stricto sensu de la UNESP fue credenciado por la CAPES, desde su creación en 1994, en los Cursos de Maestrado y Doctorado. El Programa es desarrollado en tres Áreas de Concentración: Riesgo y Protección de Órganos y Sistemas en Anestesia y Cirugía; Calidad y Seguridad en Anestesiología y Modelos Clínicos y Experimentales en Terapia Antálgica, con sus respectivas líneas de pesquisa, en número de 14. El número de alumnos regulares del Programa es compatible con el número de orientadores (12), con proporción media de tres alumnos por orientador. Desde su inicio hasta septiembre de 2004, ocurrieron 45 Disertaciones de Maestrado y 24 de Doctorado, completando el número de 69 defensas, la mayoría con bolsas y financiaciones de Órganos de Fomento a la Pesquisa. Después de la conclusión del doctorado, 65% de los alumnos tienen actividad de docencia y pesquisa en instituciones públicas y privadas de la enseñanza universitaria del país. La mayoría de las publicaciones del programa ha sido realizada en revistas nacionales con Qualis A, con menor número de publicaciones en revistas internacionales Qualis A o B. El programa recibió de la CAPES el concepto 4,0 en una escala de 1 a 7, en sus tres últimas evaluaciones.
CONCLUSIONES: El programa se desarrolló muy bien en los 10 años de su existencia, con los principales objetivos siendo alcanzados, como la formación de profesores y pesquisadores en la área de Anestesiología para las instituciones universitarias del país.
Along the last decades, Brazilian universities have increasingly fostered strictu sensu post-graduation programs. Currently, we count on approximately 2,500 post-graduation programs, of which 35% are doctoral programs, involving approximately 100 thousand students and graduating around 5 thousand doctors a year 1.
As provided in article 1 of the Resolution of Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) n. 45, from 1999 2, providing about General Post-Graduation Rules, UNESP's Post-Graduation aims at qualifying professors, investigators and human resources specialized in different fields of knowledge, as well as at developing scientific and technological areas.
There are currently in Brazil two strictu sensu Post-Graduation Programs in Anesthesiology, both in the State of São Paulo - the first from the School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo and more recently the second, from UNESP, School of Medicine, Botucatu. Other strictu sensu Post-Graduation programs, in general for surgical areas, also have research lines in Anesthesiology, which allows anesthesiologists to also attend such programs and carry out research in Anesthesiology.
Aiming at fostering strictu sensu post-graduation programs in Anesthesiology in Brazil, we present a post-graduation program and its cumulative experience after 10 years of activity.
POST-GRADUATION PROGRAM IN ANESTHESIOLOGY - UNESP
The strictu sensu program in Anesthesiology - UNESP, after the approval of the Coordination of Graduated Personnel Improvement (CAPES), has started its activities in August 1994, with the aim of qualifying researchers and professors in Anesthesiology and is opened to physicians and veterinarians specialized in Anesthesiology.
The program was developed across UNESP departments and units and has initially involved the Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Botucatu and the Veterinary Surgery and Anesthesiology Department of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Zoology. Soon after, other Departments of the School of Medicine and Biosciences, Botucatu and of the Discipline of Anesthesiology of the Department of Clinic, Surgery and Animal Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine and Dentistry, Araçatuba, UNESP were also involved. The program was accredited by CAPES since its beginning in 1994 for Master programs to be concluded within two years and Doctoral programs to be concluded within three years.
Currently, after some reformulations, Master and Doctoral Programs are being developed within three fields of study: Organs and Systems Risk and Protection in Anesthesia and Surgery; Quality and Safety in Anesthesiology; and Clinical and Experimental Models for Pain Therapy, with their respective 14 research lines (Chart I).
In preparing and defining the disciplines, research lines of faculties participating in the Program were fundamentally taken into consideration to expose students to groups actively involved with research and with the study of corresponding areas and presenting published results in a way that knowledge may be culturally, scientifically and technically transmitted to students.
The curriculum is made up of 21 disciplines within the fields of study and of 9 Connected Domain disciplines, all clearly linked to the fields of study and research lines, without redundancy with Lato Sensu programs. Students, represented by anesthesiologists and veterinarian anesthesiologists, may enroll in the field of study to which the research line of the project to be developed is related. The program has received students from the State of São Paulo and other Brazilian States. The program strengthens teaching activities of its students by requiring their participation in teaching activities of UNESP graduation and specialization programs. The program also strengthens research activities by requiring credits in scientific activities, such as publications in indexed journals, presentation of studies during Congresses and Journeys, publications in Year Books, and teaching as guest professors.
The number of regular students has increased in recent years both for Master and Doctoral programs (Figure 1) being compatible with the number of faculty advisers: in average 3 students per adviser.
The number of theses and reports has also increased in recent years (Figure 2). From its beginning until September 2004, there were 45 Master and 24 Doctoral reports, in a total of 69.
Mean graduation time has significantly decreased for Master and Doctoral programs in recent years (Figure 3).
Experimental studies are developed in The Animal Experiment Research Laboratory, Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Botucatu, while clinical studies are developed in the Hospital das Clínicas, School of Medicine, Botucatu, Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechny, Botucatu and Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine and Dentistry, Araçatuba, SP.
All projects have some type of funding from Brazilian Fostering Agencies and UNESP, and at least 70% have scholarships for post-graduating and graduating students participating in the researches, promoting a successful integration between post-graduation and graduation programs.
Faculty members are represented by 17 UNESP professors full-time dedicated to teaching and researching, with minimum title of doctor (PLD); from 12 professors participating in the disciplines and advising students, and representing major program core (NRD6), three are full professors, five are head professors and eight have completed their master or doctoral programs abroad, reflecting the seniority of faculty members. Professors are adequately renewed and some former students are invited to teach.
After completing the doctoral program, most students (65%) dedicate themselves to teaching in Brazilian public and private universities. Considering that qualifying professors in Anesthesiology is a Program's goal, this result confirms that one of the major objectives of the Program is being reached.
Most program studies are published in Brazilian journals considered by CAPES as National Qualis A, and some are published in international Qualis A or B journals. Although the number of publications has increased in recent years, students and professors still have to increase the number of international publications.
In conclusion, thanks to the efforts of its students and professors, UNESP Post-Graduation Program in Anesthesiology is successfully evolving and this has been recognized by CAPES, which in its recent evaluations has graded the Program 4, in a scale from 1 to 7. So, this Program is a major alternative in Brazil for those wishing to complete a strictu sensu post-graduation program in Anesthesiology.
01. Velloso J - Formação no país ou no exterior? Doutores na pós-graduação de excelência. Brasília: Fundação Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, 2002;260. [ Links ]
02. UNESP - Regimento Geral de Pós-Graduação. Pró-Reitoria da Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa, 1999;20. [ Links ]
Prof. Dr. José Reinaldo Cerqueira Braz
Address: Deptº de Anestesiologia da FMB UNESP
ZIP: 18618-970 City: Botucatu, Brazil
Submitted for publication October 6, 2004
Accepted for publication March 3, 2005
* Received from CET/SBA da UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu (FMB) - SP